Porcine TGF-beta 1 Protein


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Reactivity PoSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity

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Porcine TGF-beta 1 Protein Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of HT‑2 mouse T cells. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The ED50 for this effect is 0.03-0.2 ng/mL.
Porcine platelet-derived TGF-beta 1 protein
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
Protein/Peptide Type
Natural Proteins
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
Endotoxin Note
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


12 kDa, reducing conditions
Read Publications using
101-B1 in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 10 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Porcine TGF-beta 1 Protein

  • DPD1
  • latency-associated peptide
  • TGF beta1
  • TGFB
  • TGFB1
  • TGF-beta 1 protein
  • TGFbeta 1
  • TGF-beta 1
  • TGFbeta
  • TGF-beta-1
  • transforming growth factor beta-1
  • transforming growth factor, beta 1


TGF- beta 1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) is one of three closely related mammalian members of the large TGF-beta superfamily that share a characteristic cystine knot structure (1 - 7). TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3 are highly pleiotropic cytokines that are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (1 - 4). Each TGF-beta isoform has some non redundant functions; for TGF-beta 1, mice with targeted deletion show defects in hematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation, and die of overwhelming inflammation (2). Porcine TGF-beta 1 cDNA encodes a 390 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 29 aa signal peptide and a 361 aa proprotein (8). A furin-like convertase processes the proprotein to generate an N-terminal 220 aa latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a C-terminal 112 aa mature TGF- beta 1 (8, 9). Disulfide-linked homodimers of LAP and TGF-beta 1 remain non-covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF-beta 1 complex (8 - 10). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (9, 10). TGF-beta is activated from latency by pathways that include actions of the protease plasmin, matrix metalloproteases, thrombospondin 1 and a subset of integrins (10). Mature porcine TGF-beta 1 shows 100% aa identity with human, dog and cow TGF-beta 1 and 99% aa identity with mouse, rat and horse TGF-beta 1. It demonstrates cross species activity (1). TGF-beta 1 signaling begins with high-affinity binding to a type II ser/thr kinase receptor termed TGF-beta RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates a second ser/thr kinase receptor, TGF-beta RI (also called activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) -5), or alternatively, ALK-1.This complex phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription (3, 11, 12). Contributions of the accessory receptors betaglycan (also known as TGF-beta RIII) and endoglin, or use of Smad-independent signaling pathways, allow for disparate actions observed in response to TGF-beta in different contexts (11).

  1. Sporn, M.B. (2006) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 17:3.
  2. Dunker, N. and K. Krieglstein (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
  3. Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
  4. Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
  5. Lin, J.S. et al. (2006) Reproduction 132:179.
  6. Hinck, A.P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8517.
  7. Mittl, P.R.E. et al. (1996) Protein Sci. 5:1261.
  8. Kondaiah, P. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:18313.
  9. Miyazono, K. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:6407.
  10. Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
  11. de Caestecker, M. et al. (2004) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:1.
  12. Zuniga, J.E. et al. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 354:1052.

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Publications for TGF-beta 1 (101-B1)(21)

We have publications tested in 5 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Bovine, Porcine, Xenopus.

We have publications tested in 2 applications: Bioassay, In Vivo.

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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 21. Show All 21 Publications.
Publications using 101-B1 Applications Species
AE Dodi, IO Ajayi, C Chang, M Beard, SL Ashley, SK Huang, VJ Thannickal, DJ Tschumperl, TH Sisson, JC Horowitz Regulation of fibroblast Fas expression by soluble and mechanical pro-fibrotic stimuli Respir. Res., 2018;19(1):91. 2018 [PMID: 29747634] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
X Fu, H Khalil, O Kanisicak, JG Boyer, RJ Vagnozzi, BD Maliken, MA Sargent, V Prasad, I Valiente-A, BC Blaxall, JD Molkentin Specialized fibroblast differentiated states underlie scar formation in the infarcted mouse heart J. Clin. Invest., 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29664017] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
K Stanko, C Iwert, C Appelt, K Vogt, J Schumann, FJ Strunk, S Ahrlich, S Schlickeis, C Romagnani, K Jürchott, C Meisel, G Willimsky, AA Kühl, B Sawitzki CD96 expression determines the inflammatory potential of IL-9-producing Th9 cells Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29531070] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
X Du, Z Pan, Q Li, H Liu, Q Li SMAD4 feedback regulates the canonical TGF-? signaling pathway to control granulosa cell apoptosis Cell Death Dis, 2018;9(2):151. 2018 [PMID: 29396446] (Bioassay, Porcine) Bioassay Porcine
L Peix, IC Evans, DR Pearce, JK Simpson, TM Maher, RJ McAnulty Diverse functions of clusterin promote and protect against the development of pulmonary fibrosis Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):1906. 2018 [PMID: 29382921] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
K Bernard, NJ Logsdon, GA Benavides, Y Sanders, J Zhang, VM Darley-Usm, VJ Thannickal Glutaminolysis is required for TGF-?1-induced myofibroblast differentiation and activation J. Biol. Chem., 2017;0(0):. 2017 [PMID: 29222329] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
H Khalil, O Kanisicak, V Prasad, RN Correll, X Fu, T Schips, RJ Vagnozzi, R Liu, T Huynh, SJ Lee, J Karch, JD Molkentin Fibroblast-specific TGF-?-Smad2/3 signaling underlies cardiac fibrosis J. Clin. Invest., 2017;0(0):. 2017 [PMID: 28891814] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
C Silva-Vilc, K Pletinckx, M Lohnert, V Pavlovic, D Ashour, V John, E Vendelova, S Kneitz, J Zhou, R Chen, T Reinheckel, TD Mueller, J Bodem, MB Lutz Low doses of cholera toxin and its mediator cAMP induce CTLA-2 secretion by dendritic cells to enhance regulatory T cell conversion PLoS ONE, 2017;12(7):e0178114. 2017 [PMID: 28759565] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
TGF-? signaling controls FSHR signaling-reduced ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis through the SMAD4/miR-143 axis Cell Death Dis, 2016;7(11):e2476. 2016 [PMID: 27882941] (Bioassay, Porcine) Bioassay Porcine
Context-dependent switch in chemo/mechanotransduction via multilevel crosstalk among cytoskeleton-regulated MRTF and TAZ and TGF?-regulated Smad3 Nat Commun, 2016;7(0):11642. 2016 [PMID: 27189435] (Bioassay, Porcine) Bioassay Porcine
Show All 21 Publications.

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Blogs on TGF-beta 1.

TGF-beta 1 - a versatile signaling molecule with roles in development and disease
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family consists of a wide variety of signaling proteins with roles in development. TGF-beta signaling controls growth, differentiation, and immune responses and is often misregulated in cancer. TGF-beta...  Read full blog post.

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Gene Symbol TGFB1