PD-L1 Antibody Pair

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Sandwich ELISA: CD274 Antibody Pair [H00029126-AP41] - Detection sensitivity ranging from 0.3 ng/ml to 100 ng/ml.

Product Details

Summary
Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Applications ELISA
Standard Curve Range
0.3 ng/ml to 100 ng/ml

Order Details

PD-L1 Antibody Pair Summary

Description
Quality control test: Standard curve using recombinant protein (H00029126-Q01) as an analyte. This antibody pair set comes with matched antibody pair to detect and quantify protein level of human CD274.
Standard Curve Range
0.3 ng/ml to 100 ng/ml
Assay Type
Sandwich ELISA
Gene
CD274

Applications/Dilutions

Dilutions
  • Sandwich ELISA 0.3 ng/ml - 100 ng/ml
Application Notes
Reagents are sufficient for at least 3-5 x 96 well plates using recommended protocols.
Publications
Read Publication using H00029126-AP41.

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Aliquot and store at -20C or -80C. Avoid freeze-thaw cycles.
Buffer
1x PBS, pH 7.4

Kit Components

Components
  1. Capture antibody: mouse monoclonal anti-CD274 IgG2b Kappa (100 ug)
  2. Detection antibody: biotinylated mouse monoclonal anti-CD274 IgG2b Kappa (50 ug)

Notes

This product is produced by and distributed for Abnova, a company based in Taiwan.

Alternate Names for PD-L1 Antibody Pair

  • Avelumab
  • B7-H
  • B7H1
  • B7-H1
  • B7H1PDCD1L1
  • CD274 antigenMGC142294
  • CD274 molecule
  • CD274
  • PDCD1L1
  • PDCD1LG1
  • PDCD1LG1MGC142296
  • PDL1
  • PD-L1
  • PD-L1B7 homolog 1
  • PDL1PDCD1 ligand 1
  • programmed cell death 1 ligand 1
  • Programmed death ligand 1

Background

Programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1), also known as CD274 and B7-H1, is a 33 kDa type I glycoprotein containing 290 amino acids (aa) belonging to the protein B7 family and serves as part of an immune checkpoint (1,2). PD-L1 contains an Ig-V and Ig-C-like extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail lacking canonical signaling motifs (2,3). PD-L1 is the ligand that binds the receptor programmed-death 1 (PD-1) which is highly expressed on active T cells (1-3). PD-L1 is typically upregulated by tumor cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs), but also expressed on T cells, B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells (DC), mast cells, and some non-immune cell types (1-3). In addition to the membrane-bound, PD-L1 is released from cells both in soluble form and bound to extracellular vesicles (4).

PD-L1 binding with receptor PD-1 results in phosphorylation of in the inhibitory tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) domain of PD-1, which leads to recruitment of Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine-phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) and eventual downstream phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and phospholipid inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) (1,3). Under normal conditions, the PD-L1/PD-1 signaling axis helps maintain immune tolerance and prevent destructive immune responses by inhibiting T cell activity such as proliferation, survival, cytokine production, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) cytotoxicity (1-3). In the tumor microenvironment (TME), however, the PD-L1/PD-1 signaling axis is hijacked to promote tumor cell survival and limit anti-tumor immune response (1,3). More precisely, tumor cells can escape killing and immune surveillance due to T cell exhaustion and apoptosis (1-3).

Given the role the PD-L1/PD-1 signaling axis plays in tumor cells' ability to evade immune surveillance, it has become a target of several immunotherapeutic agents in recent years (3,5). Antibody immunotherapies that target these inhibitory checkpoint molecules has shown great promise for cancer treatment (3,5). PD-L1 and PD-1 blocking agents have been approved for treatment in a number of cancers including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), urothelial carcinoma, and Merkel-cell carcinoma (3,5). In many cancers the expression of PD-L1 in the TME has predictive value for response to blocking agents (3). Pembrolizumab, for example, is a PD-1 inhibitor that has been approved by the FDA as a second-line therapy for treatment of metastatic NSCLC in patients whose tumors express PD-L1 with a Tumor Proportion Score (TPS) greater than 1%, but also for first-line treatment in cases where patients' tumors expression PD-L1 with a TPS greater than 50%) (5). The most promising cancer immunotherapy treatments seem to point to combination therapy with both anti-cancer drugs (e.g. Gefitibin, Metformin, Etoposide) with PD-L1/PD-1 antibody blockade inhibitors (e.g. Atezolizumab, Nivolumab) (6).

References

1. Han, Y., Liu, D., & Li, L. (2020). PD-1/PD-L1 pathway: current researches in cancer. American journal of cancer research, 10(3), 727-742.

2. Jiang, Y., Chen, M., Nie, H., & Yuan, Y. (2019). PD-1 and PD-L1 in cancer immunotherapy: clinical implications and future considerations. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 15(5), 1111-1122. https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1571892

3. Sun, C., Mezzadra, R., & Schumacher, T. N. (2018). Regulation and Function of the PD-L1 Checkpoint. Immunity, 48(3), 434-452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2018.03.014

4. Cha, J. H., Chan, L. C., Li, C. W., Hsu, J. L., & Hung, M. C. (2019). Mechanisms Controlling PD-L1 Expression in Cancer. Molecular cell, 76(3), 359-370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2019.09.030

5. Tsoukalas, N., Kiakou, M., Tsapakidis, K., Tolia, M., Aravantinou-Fatorou, E., Baxevanos, P., Kyrgias, G., & Theocharis, S. (2019). PD-1 and PD-L1 as immunotherapy targets and biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer. Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology, 24(3), 883-888.

6. Gou, Q., Dong, C., Xu, H., Khan, B., Jin, J., Liu, Q., Shi, J., & Hou, Y. (2020). PD-L1 degradation pathway and immunotherapy for cancer. Cell death & disease, 11(11), 955. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03140-2

Limitations

This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Antibody Pairs are guaranteed for 6 months from date of receipt.

Publications for PD-L1 Antibody Pair (H00029126-AP41)(1)

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Bioinformatics

Gene Symbol CD274