Recombinant Human Dkk-4 Protein

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Recombinant Human Wnt‑3a (Catalog # 5036-WN) induces a dose responsive increase in Wnt reporter activity in HEK293 cells (green circles). Recombinant Human Dkk-4 (Catalog #1269‑DK) inhibits a constant dose of 500 ...read more

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Summary
Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity

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Recombinant Human Dkk-4 Protein Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to inhibit Wnt induced TCF reporter activity in HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells. Recombinant Human Dkk-4 (Catalog # 1269-DK) inhibits a constant dose of 500 ng/mL of Recombinant Human Wnt-3a (Catalog # 5036‑WN). The ED50 for this effect is 150-900 ng/mL.
Source
Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived human Dkk-4 protein
Leu19-Leu224, with a C-terminal 10-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Leu19
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
Gene
DKK4
Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Endotoxin Note
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.

Applications/Dilutions

Dilutions
  • Bioactivity
Theoretical MW
24.4 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
SDS-PAGE
35 kDa, reducing conditions
Publications
Read Publications using
1269-DK in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Buffer
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Tris-Citrate and NaCl with BSA as a carrier protein.
Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 200 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.

Notes

This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human Dkk-4 Protein

  • dickkopf (Xenopus laevis) homolog 4
  • dickkopf homolog 4 (Xenopus laevis)
  • dickkopf-4
  • dickkopf-related protein 4
  • Dkk4
  • Dkk-4
  • hDkk-4
  • MGC129562
  • MGC129563

Background

Dickkopf related protein 4 (Dkk-4) is a member of the Dkk protein family that includes Dkk-1, -2, -3, and -4 (1). All four members are secreted proteins that are synthesized as precursor proteins with an N‑terminal signal peptide and 2 conserved cysteine‑rich domains, which are separated by a linker region. Dkk proteins have potential furin type proteolytic cleavage sites, and short forms of Dkk-2 and Dkk-4 containing only the second cysteine‑rich domain can be generated by proteolytic processing (1). Dkk proteins have distinct patterns of expression in adult and embryonic tissues, suggesting that they may play diverse roles in these tissues.

The Dkk proteins have distinct effects on Wnt signaling. Dkk-1 and Dkk-4 are Wnt antagonists. Dkk-3 has not been demonstrated to affect Wnt signaling, and Dkk-2 acts as an agonist or antagonist, depending on the cellular context. Wnt signaling regulates many important developmental processes including neural crest differentiation, brain development, kidney morphogenesis, and sex determination. In addition, Wnt signaling has also been implicated in tumor formation. Canonical Wnt signaling via the beta -catenin pathway is transduced by a receptor complex composed of the Frizzled proteins (Fz) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related proteins (LRP5/6) (2, 3). Unlike many soluble Wnt antagonists that function by binding extracellular Wnt ligands to prevent interaction of Wnt with the Fz-LRP5/6 receptor complex, Dkk-1 and Dkk-4 antagonize Wnt/ beta -catenin signaling by direct high-affinity binding to the Wnt coreceptor LRP5/6 and inhibiting interaction of LRP5/6 with the Wnt-Frizzled complex (4). Dkk-1 and Dkk-4 also bind the transmembrane proteins Kremen1 (Krm1) and Krm2 with high-affinity (5). Krm2 has been shown to form a ternary complex with Dkk-1 or -4 and LRP5/6 to trigger internalization of the complex and removal of LRP6 from the cell surface. Thus, Dkk-1/4 and Kremens function synergistically to antagonize LRP5/6-mediated Wnt activity. Dkk-2 also binds to LRP5/6 and the Kremens, but Dkk-2 acts as an antagonist of the Wnt signaling pathway only in the presence of Krm2 (5, 6). Dkk-2 binding to LRP5/6 in the absence of Krm2 activates rather than inhibits Wnt signalling (6).

  1. Krupnik, V.E. et al. (1999) Gene 238:301.
  2. Zorn, A.M. (2001) Current Biology R592.
  3. Mao, J. et al. (2001) Mol. Cell 7:801.
  4. Nusse, R. et al. (2001) Nature 411:255.
  5. Mao, J. et al. (2002) Nature 417:664.
  6. Mao, B. and C. Niehrs (2003) Gene 302:179.

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Publications for Dkk-4 (1269-DK)(3)

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Bioinformatics

Gene Symbol DKK4
Uniprot