Taking Biomarker Discovery From 2D to 3D: Increased Biological Activity of EVs Isolated From 3D Prostate Cancer Cultures

Transcriptional co-activators Yap1 and Taz control growth and development

Antibody treatment can generate microglia-like cells from bone marrow

Stemness is responsible for onset and metastasis of colorectal cancer

The use of Beta Actin (AC-15) as a loading control across multiple species

Actin is a fundamental component of the cytoskeleton, where it has the ability to create and break down actin filament formation in response to various cell needs.  Actin has six highly conserved isoforms, however beta and gamma actin are the two isoforms that are highly and ubiquitously expressed in the cell.  For this reason, measuring beta-actin levels has served as a useful control in research experiments in order to have a baseline of protein expression to compare cell manipulations to.  However, beta actin has other implications in scientific research aside from acting

The use of actin as a loading control in research on fruiting-body development and vegetative growth in Sordaria macrospora research

Sordaria macrospora is a filamentous fungus that serves as very useful system for scientific research due to a short life cycle and easy manipulation.  Just like any other model organism, it is important to have an effective loading control to validate experiments in the Sordaria macrospora.  In addition, the growth and morphogenesis of filamentous fungi is dependent on actin organization.  Actin is a very abundant protein across biological species and can transition between monomeric and filamentous states.  Actin has an alpha and beta isoform, both of which sha

Alpha-smooth muscle actin and the modulation of endothelial and epithelial cell biology

Actin is essential for a wide range of cell functions, ranging from cell division and chromatin remodeling to vesicle trafficking and maintenance of cellular structure.

Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Markers

Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is the trans-differentiation of stationary epithelial cells into motile mesenchymal cells. During EMT, epithelial cells lose their junctions and apical-basal polarity, reorganize their cytoskeleton, undergo a change in the signaling cascade that defines cell shape and reprograms gene expression. Collectively, these changes increase the motility of individual cells and enables the development of an invasive phenotype.

CD63: is it pro-metastatic or anti-metastatic?

CD63 is a type II membrane protein belonging to tetraspanin superfamily and it play key roles in the activation of several cellular signaling cascades along with acting as TIMP1 receptor. It is expressed by activated platelets, monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, T /B cells, and different type of cancer cells. CD63 localizes to endosomes, lysosomes and on the cellular surfaces, and is often considered as a marker for late endosomes as well as for lysosomes.

Vimentin: Regulating EMT and Cancer

Vimentin, a member of the intermediate filament (IF) family, is a protein responsible for maintaining cellular integrity and reducing damage caused by stress.