MMP-2: More Than a Cancer Marker

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are a family of endopeptidases involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix (ECM) during both normal physiological and disease processes. MMP-2 is a zinc-dependent family member that selectively cleaves collagen and elastin, major structural components of the basement membrane. In addition, MMP-2 has been found to affect a number of non-matrix proteins such as big endothelin-1 (Fernandez-Patron et al., 1999), KISS (Takino et al., 2003), GSK3B (Kandasamy et al., 2009), and CHUK (Olivotto et al., 2013).

CD63: is it pro-metastatic or anti-metastatic?

CD63 is a type II membrane protein belonging to tetraspanin superfamily and it play key roles in the activation of several cellular signaling cascades along with acting as TIMP1 receptor. It is expressed by activated platelets, monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, T /B cells, and different type of cancer cells. CD63 localizes to endosomes, lysosomes and on the cellular surfaces, and is often considered as a marker for late endosomes as well as for lysosomes.

Integrin alpha v beta 3 - a target for inhibiting tumor angiogenesis

Integrins are a family of transmembrane proteins involved in diverse processes including cell adhesion, signal transduction, cell migration, and differentiation. They exist as heterodimers consisting of noncovalently linked alpha and beta subunits. Integrin complexes span the plasma membrane and link the cytoskeleton with the extracellular matrix. In mammals there are 18 alpha and 8 beta subunits that can assemble into 24 distinct integrin heterodimers with alternative splicing adding even more diversity.

Cytokeratin 18 - A Intermediate Filament Cyotskeletal Component

Keratins, also called cytokeratins, are a family of filamentous structural proteins that form the intermediate filaments within epithelial cells. Keratins are differentially expressed depending on both the epithelial cell origin and degree of differentiation. An antibody to any given keratin is useful either as a stand-alone or part of an antibody panel to help identify or clarify tissue origin. Cytokeratin 18 (CK18) is a 45 kD normal constituent of the hepatocyte cytoskeleton and is expressed in combination with cytokeratin 8.