Breast Cancer

Understanding ‘Y’ in Breast Cancer: Crucial Role of DNA/RNA-binding Protein YB-1 in the Development, Pre-Invasive, and Metastatic Phases

Breast cancer stem cells survive chemotherapy through S100A10-ANXA2-SPT6 interaction that epigenetically promotes OCT4-mediated stemness

Chemotherapy-induced metastasis: An unexpected foe?

Application Focus: New Methods for iPSC Differentiation, Inducing a Mammary Fate

Breast Cancer Infographic

Breast cancer is caused by malignant cells developing in breast tissue. It is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women, but advancements in treatment options have seen the death rate decline since the 1990s. Common warning signs of breast cancer include lumps, changes in breast size or shape, discoloration, dimpling of the skin, new concentrated pain in the breast, and rash on the nipple.  Yearly mammograms and self-exams are an important part of early detection of breast cancer.

Plumbagin: A Natural Chemotherapeutic

Plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a toxin, named after the plant genus Plumbago from which it was first isolated in 1968 (1). Since its discovery there have been a wide variety of publications describing its effects on fertility, hyperlipedaemia (high cholesterol) and its use as an anti-bacterial. More recently, there have been multiple efforts to synthesise derivatives and analogues of plumbagin in order to increase its potential as an anti-cancer agent.

COBRA1: A Key Player in Transcriptional Pausing

Co-factor of BRCA1, also known as COBRA1, was first identified as a protein that binds to the tumour suppressor protein encoded by the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 (1). It was subsequently found to be identical to subunit B of the Negative Elongation Factor (NELF) complex (2). NELF is composed of four subunits (A, B, C or D, and E) and plays a pivotal role in the transcriptional pausing of RNA polymerase II.

RAD51: The cell's 'Mr. Fix-it'

RAD51 is a recombinase protein encoded by RAD51 gene in humans. Human RAD51 family members are highly similar to bacterial RecA and yeast Rad51, both biochemically and structurally. It is a 339-amino acid protein that plays an important role in homologous recombination (HR) of DNA during double-strand break (DSB) repair.

Cerebellar Degeneration-Related Protein 2 (CDR2): Cell-Cycle Regulated Tumor Antigen

CDR2 is a tumor antigen expressed in a high percentage of breast and ovarian tumors and is the target of a naturally occurring tumor immune response in patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration.

CENPF Antibodies as Potential Cancer Markers

Centromere protein F (CENPF), also named mitosin, is a large human protein of 3113 amino acid residues. Its expression and localization are cell cycle-dependent. The protein levels are low in G1 phase but elevated from S to early M phase. CENPF is a nuclear matrix protein in interphase but is relocated to the kinetochore, the major site of microtubule attachment on chromosome, in M phase (1).