Insulin

Insulin signaling in adipocytes: Carbohydrate-signaling transcription factor ChREBP is the link between lipolytic enzyme Hormone-Sensitive Lipase and lipogenic enzyme ELOVL6

Inhibiting incretin GIP hormone activity in mouse and monkey models to combat obesity

The release of insulin from pancreas beta-cells is controlled by glucose levels, Vagus nerve input, and GLP-1 from the intestines.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

Insulin signaling in brain’s subfornical organ is crucial for regulating cardiometabolic profile

Eat responsibly: Epigenetic downregulation of Ankrd26 gene by long-term high-fat intake promotes obesity and inflammation

Application Focus: New Methods for iPSC Differentiation, Inducing a Mammary Fate

4EBP1 and skeletal muscle protein synthesis

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1, or 4EBP1, is an mRNA translational repressor protein that negatively regulates eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, or EIF4E.  EIF4E is a protein that forms a complex necessary to block the 5’ ends of mRNA with a 7-methyl-guanosine five-prime cap structure, which is important for normal translation of mRNA.  Specifically, the EIF4E complex recruits 40s ribosome subunits to scan mRNA in order to regulate protein synthesis.  When EIF4E is bound to 4EBP1, it is held in an

The effects of curcumin on IKB Alpha and the NFkB signaling pathway

The IKK complex, or inhibitor of NFkB kinase, is composed of IKK alpha and IKK beta.  These kinases are at the core of the NFkB signaling cascade.  The NFkB family is made up of transcription factors that are kept inactive in the cytoplasm through inhibitory IkB proteins.

AMPK Alpha 1 and lipid metabolism of adipocytes

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is best known as a sensor of oxidative stress.  AMPK is activated by increased intracellular AMP levels, which are a result of alterations in cellular metabolism from causes such as hypoxia, changes in ATP, senescence and more.  In cell stress models, AMPK can protect cells from reduced ATP production by altering ATP biosynthetic pathways.  Furthermore, AMPK has implications in reducing inflammatory reactions in apoptosis pathways.

ChREBP, a glucose sensitive transcription factor with role in glucose-lipids homeostasis and cancer

ChREBP (carbohydrate response element-binding protein) is a glucose responsive basic helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper (bHLH/LZ) transcription factor that binds MLX and then carbohydrate response element /ChoRE for the induction of genes involved in glycolysis, de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and fatty acid desaturation. ChREBP’s target genes includes glucokinase (GCK), fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), pyruvate kinase/liver type pyruvate kinase (PK1/ PKLR), delta-9-desaturase (SCD/SCD1) etc.

Ghrelin: Targeting the Hunger Hormone to Combat Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes

As the hormone ghrelin is linked to appetite and weight gain, as well as impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion, there is considerable interest in this peptide as a potential drug target. Although the overall lack of success in this field has been disappointing, research inhibiting the ghrelin-modifying enzyme GOAT (MBOAT4) has produced promising results.

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