Carbonic Anhydrase IX/CA9

Understanding ‘Y’ in Breast Cancer: Crucial Role of DNA/RNA-binding Protein YB-1 in the Development, Pre-Invasive, and Metastatic Phases

Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) - a reliable histochemical marker of hypoxia

Carbonic anhydrase IX is a member of the carbonic anhydrase family. This family consists of catalytic enzymes capable of converting carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid, protons, and bicarbonate ions. This family of molecules is abundantly expressed in all mammalian tissues and helps to govern the pH in normal tissues. CAIX is very stable and found in the membrane. It is also one of the most hypoxically-inducible genes, thus establishing its application as a reliable and consistent hypoxia histochemical marker.