Antibody News

Actin Dynamics and Endocytic Trafficking

Wednesday, December 19, 2012 - 15:52

Actin is a ubiquitous and an essential component of the cytoskeleton, with critical roles in a wide range of cellular processes. It is abundant protein whose monomers polymerize into polarized actin filaments, within epithelial cells. Filamentous actin is concentrated at the plasma membrane where a wide variety of actin-associated proteins harness the potential and structure of actin filaments to moderate functions at the plasma membrane (1).

IHC analysis of Actin in human tonsil tissue IHC analysis of Actin in human tonsil tissue

These functions include structural support of the plasma membrane, cell polarity, membrane protein...

PGC-1 alpha: Roles in Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Disease

Monday, December 17, 2012 - 13:04

An important aspect of mitochondria maintenance includes biogenesis to replenish damaged and degraded mitochondrial structures. The regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis is very complex and numerous genes regulate and synchronize protein synthesis from the mitochondrial and nuclear genome. The factors governing these processes include nuclear respiratory factors (NRF1 and NRF2) as well as the nuclear receptors such as peroxisome proliferator receptors (PPARs) and estrogen related receptors (ERRs). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator alpha (PGC-1 alpha) binds to NRF1 and NRF2, as well as the nuclear receptors PPAR and ERR, to induce expression of their target genes.


Bulk Antibody & Protein Ordering

Wednesday, December 12, 2012 - 08:23

Novus offers discounts for bulk antibody and protein purchases. Get all your questions answered to help you with your next bulk order.

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Contact the Novus team by phone or email

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Additionally, all of our datasheets contain a link for a bulk quote. This will take you to a form to fill out all the requirements for your order.

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O-GlcNAc, Glucose Deprivation and Cancer

Monday, December 10, 2012 - 11:07

O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a sugar attachment to serine or threonine hydroxyl moieties on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. O-GlcNAc modified proteins are generally either cytoplasmic or nuclear proteins, and unlike asparagine-linked or mucin-type O-glycosylation, O-GlcNAc is not further processed into a complex oligosaccharide. In many ways, O-GlcNAc is similar to protein phosphorylation; for example the sugar can be attached or removed dynamically in response to changes in the cellular environment triggered by stress, hormones, or nutrients (1).

WB analysis of O-GlcNAc in in 1) HeLa, 2) NTERA-2, 3) PC-12 and 4) COS-7 cell lysates


AKAP95/AKAP8 Orchestrates and Synchronizes Cellular Events

Friday, December 7, 2012 - 11:58

A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs), such as AKAP95/AKAP8, are scaffold proteins that contain a binding domain for the RI/RII subunit of protein kinase A (PKA). AKAPs orchestrate and synchronize cellular events by tethering the cAMP-dependent PKA and other signaling enzymes to organelles and membranes. This gene encodes a nuclear A-kinase anchor protein that binds to the RII alpha subunit of PKA and may play a role in chromosome condensation during mitosis (1).

IHC analysis of IHC AKAP95/AKAP8 in human ovarian cancer

In a recent study the subcellular localization of human...

Cerebellar Degeneration-Related Protein 2 (CDR2): Cell-Cycle Regulated Tumor Antigen

Wednesday, December 5, 2012 - 10:23

CDR2 is a tumor antigen expressed in a high percentage of breast and ovarian tumors and is the target of a naturally occurring tumor immune response in patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. CDR2 has also been shown to be a cell cycle regulated protein in tumor cells with protein levels peaking in mitosis (1). Loss of CDR2 in cells has been linked to aberrant mitotic spindle formation and impaired proliferation. Conversely, CDR2 overexpression is also responsible for cell proliferation in tumors.


SOX2: an Important Stem Cell Transcription Factor

Monday, December 3, 2012 - 09:43

SOX2 is a transcription factor that is expressed by self-renewing and multipotent stem cells of the embryonic neuroepithelium. Sox-2 was found to be expressed by dividing neural progenitor cells. Constitutive expression of SOX2 has also been shown to inhibit neuronal differentiation and results in the maintenance of progenitor characteristics. Conversely, inhibition of SOX2 signaling results in neural progenitor cells exit from cell cycle, which is associated with a loss of progenitor markers and the onset of early neuronal differentiation markers. Taken together, these data indicate that SOX signaling is both necessary and sufficient to maintain pan neural properties of neural progenitor cells (1).


Mitofilin and the Mitochondrial Inner Membrane Organizing System (MINOS)

Friday, November 30, 2012 - 11:55

Mitofilin was originally described as a heart muscle protein due to its high expression in the heart. Recently, analysis of the human heart mitochondrial proteome demonstrated that Mitofilin is one of the most abundant mitochondrial proteins (1). Researchers have reported finding two alternately spliced Mitofilin variants producing proteins of 88 and 90 kDa, that were detected in immunoblots with Mitofilin antibodies (2).

IF analysis of Mitofilin in HeLa cells.

Mitofilin is part of a large inner membrane complex, and has five partner proteins as constituents of the mitochondrial inner membrane...

Nucleus and Mitotic Apparatus (NuMA) Protein in Cell Cycle Regulation

Wednesday, November 28, 2012 - 11:10

NuMA, the major protein of the "Nucleus and Mitotic Apparatus", is a structural protein in vertebrates involved in cell cycle regulation. It localizes to the nucleus during interphase, and accumulates at the spindle poles during mitosis and NuMA has been implicated in the formation of the mitotic spindle, in particular in focusing the spindle poles (1).

WB analysis of NuMA in Cos7 whole cell lysate

Depletion of NuMA by siRNA and subsequent detection by IHC and Western blotting in HeLa cells demonstrated a prolonged duration of prometaphase, with spindle pole defects and with unattached, unaligned...

p14 ARF is an Important Tumor Suppressor

Monday, November 26, 2012 - 10:09

The p14ARF (Alternative Reading Frame) tumor suppressor is a protein product of the alternative reading frame (ARF) of the human INK4a locus which regulates a series of cell cycle regulatory proteins to promote cell cycle arrest in response to abnormal hyper-proliferative growth stimuli. p14ARF alterations are common in human cancers and, when inherited, confer susceptibility to cutaneous melanoma (1).

IF analysis of p14ARF in HeLa cells.

It is widely proposed that the p14ARF melanoma tumor suppressor protein functions to protect melanocytes from oncogenic transformation and is mainly a...

Adhesion Receptor Molecule CD11b/c is the Point of Entry for many Infectious Diseases

Wednesday, November 21, 2012 - 10:55

Pathogenic microorganisms utilize a variety of cell surface receptors to gain entry into host cells and to bypass the natural defense mechanisms. One of the most prominent receptors used in this fashion is the leukocyte adhesion receptor CD11b/c. This integrin is the primary leukocyte receptor for a number of pathogens, including Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Leishmania species, Bordetella pertussis, and Candida albicans. CD11b/c is the principal adhesion receptor for C. albicans on neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes, and this interaction leads to suppression of the immune response to the microorganism. As the major cause of hospital-acquired fungal...

Beta Amyloid Neurotoxicity and Alzheimer's Disease

Monday, November 19, 2012 - 09:58

A major histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the presence of amyloid deposits in the parenchyma of the amygdala, hippocampus, and neocortex. The principal component of amyloid is beta amyloid (AB). The pathologic accumulation of AB in plaques is postulated to result from an imbalance between production and clearance during aging. Transgenic mouse models overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP) bearing certain familial AD mutations have validated overproduction of AB as driving AD-type amyloid pathology (1).


Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 in Immune System Response

Friday, November 16, 2012 - 14:29

MCP1, also known as CCL2, is a small chemokine factor belonging to the CC chemokine family. It is predominantly produced by endothelial cells and macrophages, and specifically is a chemoattractant for monocytes and basophils. It is produced by a wide range of cell types in reaction to diverse inflammatory stimuli including tissue injury, infection, and inflammation. A comprehensive chemokine antibody membrane array analysis of normal, rhematoid arthritis (RA), and osteoarthritis (OA) patients relied upon MCP 1 antibodies as a primary screen before chemotaxis screening (1).


PECAM1 in Cell Adhesion and Immune System Responses

Monday, November 12, 2012 - 11:00

Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule, also known as PECAM1 or cluster differentiation 31 (CD31), is an 82 kDa adhesion molecule that is expressed on platelets and leukocytes. Six isoforms are produced by alternative splicing and this protein undergoes post translation modification. PECAM -1 is found on chromosome 17. This protein is concentrated at the borders between endothelial cells.

Immunohistochemistry-Frozen: CD31/PECAM1 Antibody Immunohistochemistry-Frozen: CD31/PECAM1 Antibody

PECAM1 is a protein with many functions and has been linked to various pathological and physiological events. These physiological events include regulation of T-cell immunity and tolerance, Nitric Oxide production,...

Perforin Antibodies Reveal Links to Apoptosis and Immune Response

Wednesday, November 7, 2012 - 14:33

Perforin, also known as the pore-forming protein, pfp, is a 70 kD cytolytic protein expressed in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. It is one of the major effector molecules used by CTL and NK cells to mediate targeted cell killing and lysis, and thus has an important role in the immune response against tumors and virus infections. Perforin is a membrane-disrupting protein that introduces the granzymes into a target cell, causing cytoplasmic protein degredation and eventual apoptosis.


NCOR & EZH2 in Muscular Dystrophy

Monday, November 5, 2012 - 15:18

Over the years muscular dystrophies have become a popular area of research. These are a group of inherited disorders that involve an increase in muscle weakness over time. These disorders greatly decrease the quality of life and there are no known cures. Research in this area appears to have excelled in the past two years with findings related to the genes NCoR and EZH2.

The principle behind muscular dystrophies is the degeneration of muscle. During the development of muscle in infancy, muscle satellite cells are continuously proliferating. After infancy, the satellite cells will only proliferate by activation due to an injury. In these disorders, muscle satellite cells do not proliferate in response to muscle loss.  The activity of these cells appears to be controlled by the gene Ezh2. Researchers at the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases have found that causing Ezh2 to become inactive...

Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases (ERK) Cell Signaling

Wednesday, October 31, 2012 - 12:44

Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases (ERK) also known as the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK), MAPK/ERK proteins are a family of protein-serine/threonine kinases that are activated via the phosphorylation of tyrosine. MAPK/ERK are activated by diverse mechanisms. In the classical setting, MAPK/ERK is activated by many upstream growth factors/cytokine receptors in response to radiation, hypoxia, physical forces, TNF, RANKL, and toll-like receptors (1).

Immunohistochemistry: MAP2K1IP1 Antibody ...

Nuclear Factor kappa B Signaling in the Immune System

Monday, October 29, 2012 - 12:06

Nuclear Factor kappa B (NFkB) binds to the kappa-beta site of the immunoglobulin kappa light chain gene enhancer. Thus NFkB has become one of the widely studied transcription factors in innate and adaptive immune responses. The NFkB family is composed of five related transcription factors p50, p52, p65, c-Rel and Rel B (1). Thus in a number of situations NFkB mediates the critical changes that are characteristic of innate and adaptive immune responses. In most cells, NFkB complexes are inactive, residing in the cytoplasm in complex with the inhibitor of kappa-beta (IkB) proteins. Upon activation of the pathway the IkB proteins are degraded and the...

Transforming Growth Factor beta Signaling in Stem Cells

Friday, October 26, 2012 - 11:46

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) signaling along with its family members have been implicated in development and maintenance of various organs. Stem cells are important contributors to this process and are characterized by their ability to self-renew and to generate differentiated cells of a particular tissue. Stem cells can be classified into embryonic and somatic stem cells. Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the potential to undergo symmetrical cell divisions without differentiation producing identical cells known as self-renewal and contribute to the primary germ layers ecto, meso and endoderm a property defined as pluripotency (1).


Beta Actin is a Key Player in Embryonic Development and Cell Motility

Wednesday, October 24, 2012 - 16:40

Actins are an essential component of the cytoskeleton, with critical roles in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell migration, division, and regulation of gene expression. These functions are attributed to the ability of actin to form filaments that can rapidly assemble and disassemble according to the needs of the cell. There exist six different but highly conserved actin isoforms in vertebrates (1). Despite longstanding ambiguity regarding the significance of the cytoplasmic actin isoforms, it has long been believed that beta actin confers unique biological functions. Recent genetic models provided considerable support to this idea, as beta actin deficient mice have distinct phenotype uncharacterized defects (2).


"I can see clearly now": Targeting Bestrophin 1 to treat Bestrophinopathies

Monday, October 22, 2012 - 09:56

Encoded by the VMD2 gene on chromosome 11q13 Bestrophin 1 is the prototypic member of the RFP family of proteins which are more commonly called "bestrophins". The protein family was originally identified in Caenorhabditis elegans based on a conserved amino acid motifs Arg-Phe-Pro (RFP). In humans there are four members of the bestrophin family numbered sequentially BEST1, BEST2, BEST3 and BEST4. Bestrpohin 1 has a very limited tissue distribution with mRNA having been identified in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), testis, placenta, and brain, and protein having been detected only in the RPE. The founding member, bestrophin-1, was identified as the gene responsible for a dominantly inherited, juvenile-onset form of macular degeneration called Best...

Using Amyloid beta peptides in Alzheimer's Disease Immunization

Wednesday, October 17, 2012 - 11:14

Amyloid beta (AB) peptide has a central role in the neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immunization of AD transgenic mice with AB-42 peptide reduces both the spatial memory impairments and AD-like neuropathologic changes.

WB analysis of Abeta 42.

Therapeutic immunization with AB in patients with AD was shown to be effective in reducing AB deposition (1). The AB deposition and aggregation is an early event in AD neuropathology, suggesting the hypothesis that AB gene vaccination would be a promising solution to reverse and prevent progressive...

Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 beta and Cancer Development

Monday, October 15, 2012 - 10:24

Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a major transcription factor that is composed of two subunits: HIF-1 alpha and HIF-1 beta, the latter being a constitutively-expressed aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear transporter (ARNT). Under normoxic conditions, HIF-1 beta is constitutively expressed and HIF-1 alpha is targeted to proteosomal degradation via ubiquitination. On the other hand during hypoxic conditions when oxygen concentration is low, HIF-1 alpha is stabilized and translocates to nucleus, where it dimerizes with HIF-1 beta to form functional HIF-1. This altered redox state occurs in the cells experiencing hypoxia leading to gene transcription of several...

Identifying JARID2 in Embryo Development

Monday, October 8, 2012 - 09:24

The jumonji (JMJ) gene, obtained by a gene trap strategy, is essential for embryogenesis and is suggested to play important roles in cell growth during development. The amino acid sequence of the JMJ protein includes a nuclear localization signal and a DNA binding motif called the AT-rich interactive domain (ARID). Unlike the other members of the JARID family of proteins, JARID2 has a long N-terminal moiety devoid of characterized domains. Many JMJC domain-containing proteins have been shown to catalyze lysine demethylation, but the residues required for iron and ascorbate binding, essential for demethylation activity, are not conserved in the JMJC domain of Jarid2 (1).

IF analysis of JARID2

JARID 2 has been shown to co localize with...

Aches & Pains: Aggrecan in Joint Disease and Osteoarthritis

Friday, October 5, 2012 - 08:23

Aggrecan is essential for the normal function of articular cartilage and intervertebral discs. Aggrecan provides the ability for the tissues to withstand compressive loading. This property is dependent on both the high charge density endowed by its numerous chondroitin and keratan sulfate chains and its ability to form large molecular aggregates interacting with hyaluronans. Degradation of Aggrecan via the action of proteases takes place throughout life and the degradation products which accumulate in the tissue and impair its function. Aggrecan degradation is exacerbated during the degenerative and  inflammatory joint disorders and osteoarthritis as determined by anti-Aggrecanase antibodies (1).



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