Antibody News

Post-COVID Conditions or Long COVID and COVID Long-Haulers

Thursday, December 22, 2022 - 13:12
COVID-19 Virus Banner.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD


Post-acute infection syndrome (PAIS) is a phenomenon where ill effects of an infection persist even after the infection itself is over. PAIS in the case of COVID is called the long COVID or post-COVID conditions (PCC): sequelae of

Conventional Flow Cytometry vs. Spectral Flow Cytometry

Monday, November 14, 2022 - 11:17
Flow cytometry graphic banner

By Hunter Martinez


The flow cytometer is a critical piece of equipment in any immunologist’s arsenal. Flow cytometry allows for the acquisition of 4-6x105 cells per minute, each resolved at the single cell level. Scientists can interrogate protein, gene expression, as well as metabolic state of a cell using a flow cytometer.


The Basics of Cytometry

A cytometer accomplishes this feat using the principle of fluorescence. Fluorescence occurs when light from a laser is absorbed by a fluorophore, and then emitted as longer wavelength light or lower...

Is Monkeypox Still A Threat?

Monday, October 24, 2022 - 08:15
Monkeypox Graphic Banner.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD


Monkeypox is not deadly like its cousin, smallpox, nor is it as contagious as COVID-19. Yet, it continues to scare the world. In May 2022, a multinational outbreak of a contagious pox (rupture of skin and mucous membrane) was in the news and by July 23, 2022, the World Health Organization (WHO) had declared monkeypox a “public health emergency of international concern”. People’s memory of fatal but now eradicated...

NPC1: A Potential Target For Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Wednesday, October 5, 2022 - 09:15
Immunocytochemical analysis of NPC1 in HeLa cells.

By Natalia Gurule, PhD


Breast Cancer is a Heterogeneous Disease

Breast cancer is the most frequently identified malignancy in women, accounting for 30% of diagnosed cases of cancer in women in the US annually.1 Although it is so prevalent, 70-80% of patients with early stage, non-metastatic disease experience cures. By contrast, the 5-year survival rate for metastatic breast cancer is 29%.2 Molecularly, breast cancer can be separated into 5 subtypes: Luminal A, Luminal B, Luminal B-like, HER2+, and Triple-...

IRE1α Regulates Dendritic Cell Function in Response to Viral Infection

Friday, September 9, 2022 - 11:16
Immunohistochemical analysis of IRE1 alpha in human epididymis.

By Natalia Gurule, PhD


What is IRE1 alpha?

Inositol- requiring enzyme type 1 alpha (IRE1α) is a serine/threonine kinase that is one of the three transducers within the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway which becomes activated upon accumulation of misfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).1 IRE1α contains two...

The NLRP3 Inflammasome: Macrophage Activator & Pathology Driver

Monday, August 22, 2022 - 14:03
R&D Systems Inflammasome activation pathway banner.

By Victoria Osinski, PhD

What is the NLRP3 Inflammasome?

With its critical role in innate immunity, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a sensor complex within cells that forms in response to endogenous danger signals, microbial motifs, and other environmental cues. The complex is made up of a sensor (NLRP3), an adaptor called the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain...

Dual ISH-IHC: Better Together

Friday, July 15, 2022 - 13:08
Bio-Techne RNAscope ISH Banner.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD


What is Dual ISH-IHC?

On their own, both

Good Things Come in Small Packages: The Power of LlaMABody-Camelid Antibodies

Friday, June 3, 2022 - 15:21
Banner image of llamas for LLaMABody product line.

By Jennifer Jones, M.S.

When you think of antibody producing animals in the lab you probably think of rabbits, mice, goats, and rats. But what about llamas? Llamas probably aren’t the first animal, or even the fifth animal, that comes to mind when you think of antibody generation, but they’ve recently garnered a lot of attention for their potential to treat COVID-19 through neutralization of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.1 Additionally, they’ve shown potential in combatting other...

Epigenetics of Depression: How Can Psychological Stress Alter Your DNA?

Wednesday, May 18, 2022 - 08:59
Banner schematic showing epigenetic modification targeting DNA.

By Emily Cartwright, PhD

How Can Psychological Stress Alter Your DNA?

Traumatic events, work demands, relationship conflicts, and health problems are all examples of psychological stressors that can result in physiological changes including increased cortisol and adrenaline levels. This change in gene expression manifests in physical symptoms such as increased heart rate, blood pressure, headaches, fatigue, muscle pain, and insomnia. In addition to changing gene expression in the short term, psychological stress can impart lasting changes to your DNA by modifying the epigenome.


Hypoxia-Dependent CAR Stabilizing Construct in T cells Improves Solid Tumor Targeting and Efficacy

Monday, April 11, 2022 - 08:54
Banner image showing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell.

By Victoria Osinski, PhD

Despite advances in the development of cancer immunotherapies, those specifically targeting tumors still remains limited. Currently, there is great interest in utilizing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies: a strategy that utilizes patients’ T cells and genetically engineers them to produce a T cell receptor to mount an attack against cancer cells. While CAR T cells can effectively kill cancer cells in tumors, they often come with off-tumor effects because these CARs’ target antigens are found endogenously in the body....

Tired T cells: Hypoxia Drives T cell Exhaustion in the Tumor Microenvironment

Monday, March 14, 2022 - 09:22
Banner image showing cancer cells in hypoxic conditions.

By Hunter Martinez

The paradigm shifting view of the immune system being leveraged to target cancer has led to numerous therapeutic breakthroughs. One major cell group responsible for this revelation is a T cell. T cells functioning in fighting cancer can become tired or “exhausted”.  T cell exhaustion is a state of cellular dysfunction resulting from repeated stimulation and chronic exposure to...

Synthetic Biotic Medicine as Immunotherapy Against Cancer: Evidence From Arginine-Producing Engineered Bacteria

Tuesday, February 1, 2022 - 09:12
3D banner image showing example of pathogenic bacteria.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

What do nuts, dairy and red meat have in common? In addition to the fact that they are all edible, one of the answers is L-arginine. This amino acid improves T cell’s response against tumor cells, which typically have low concentration of L-arginine. Increasing L-arginine intra-tumorally, in turn, increases the effect of immunotherapy drugs called immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). To understand ICIs, consider two examples of...

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