Antibody News

Viperin: A Cellular Inhibitor of DNA and RNA Viruses

Tuesday, December 24, 2013 - 10:55

Viperin (Virus Inhibitory Protein, Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated, Interferon-inducible) inhibits the replication of a broad spectrum of viruses by several diverse mechanisms. The protein was first identified in 2001, when it was found to be the product of an IFN gamma-inducible gene (1).

Viperin is encoded by the RSAD2 gene, and is composed of three distinct domains. The central domain and C-terminal domain are highly conserved, whilst the N-terminal domain shows variability in length and sequence between species, and is necessary for the correct localization and function of the protein. The central domain contains an S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAM) domain, which has a CX3CX2C motif that is involved in iron-sulphur cluster binding and is critical for the conformational stability of the protein (2).

Many experiments have been carried out to try and establish the mechanism by which Viperin performs its...

Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiencies and Neurodegeneration

Monday, December 23, 2013 - 15:51

Tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis pathway of the catecholamines dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Alternative mRNA splicing generates a wide molecular diversity of TH isoforms that are tissue specific and produce variations in enzymatic activity and neurotransmitter availability at various synapses. Parkinson's disease (PD) is due to a TH deficiency, as dopaminergic neuron degeneration and low dopamine levels are both consistently seen neurochemical abnormalities upon monitoring by tyrosine hydroxylase antibody staining (1).


ATG5: Roles in Cellular Defense

Friday, December 20, 2013 - 10:59

ATG5, or Autophagy Related 5, is a protein crucial for autophagy. Autophagy is a mechanism in which dysfunctional or pathogenic cells or cellular components are degraded and sometimes recycled. This process happens when ATG5 conjugates with another protein and associates with a cup shaped isolation membrane. This membrane then forms an enclosed structure around the unwanted cellular debris, fuses with a lysosome, and begins degradation of cellular debris through acid hydrolysis. The regulation of ATG5 is imperative for proper immune functions, including immune cell homeostasis, metabolic syndromes and host defense of cellular pathogens. With a protein so important in cell regulation and defense, it comes to no surprise that a problem in ATG5 signaling is associated with a number of immune diseases, and when overexpressed, can cause unwanted programmed cellular death...

PINK1: Promoting Organelle Stability and Preventing Parkinson's disease

Thursday, December 19, 2013 - 14:36

PINK1 is a protein serine/threonine kinase (PTK) that protects the organelles from cellular stress and controls selective autophagy to clear damage. Exner, et al. were among the first to report that PINK1 deficiency in humans was linked to autosomal recessive occurrences of Parkinson's disease (PD) and neurogenerative pathology (1). They employed RNA interference-mediated down regulation of PINK1 and PINK1 antibody to show that their mitochondrial defect knockdown could be rescued by overexpression of Parkin, a ubiquitin-ligase complex component that has also been heavily linked to familial PD.  Lin’s group examined at length the subcellular localization, processing, and stability of PINK1 with the PINK1 antibody (2).


CCR2: Affecting Autoimmunity via MCP1 interactions

Wednesday, December 18, 2013 - 14:00

CCR2, also known as CD192 (cluster of differentiation 192), is a chemokine receptor and is expressed by monocytes, activated T cells, B cells and natural killer cells. This protein is encoded by CCR2 gene in humans. CCR2 gene encodes two protein isoforms of a receptor for chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1), MCP3 and MCP4. These chemokines bind and signal through CCR2 and mediate monocyte chemotaxis.

Chemokine receptors such as CCR2 are considered to play a key role in the pathogenesis in autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis (1). Most autoimmune diseases are marked by the infiltration of immune cells leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Many studies have...

Beta Actin: More than Just a Loading Control

Monday, December 16, 2013 - 14:23

Beta Actin is one isoform of a multifamily of highly conserved proteins that regulate cell motility, structure, and integrity. The ubiquitous expression of beta-actin in all eukaryotic cells makes it both a historical and heavily-used internal quantitative control for protein comparative assays, as can be seen in the scientific literature and publication records. For example, beta actin antibody was employed in an ex vivo familial genome-wide genetics study identifying genomic regions of importance for chemotherapy cytotoxicity (1). In the immunology arena, beta actin antibody allowed the investigation of the effects of long-term administration of the DNA synthesis inhibitor imatinib mesylate on proliferation and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in primary human T-cells (2). Yang’s group examined atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE...

MMP2: From Inflammation to Cancer

Friday, December 13, 2013 - 09:24

MMP2 is an extracellular matrix degradative peptidase enzyme that belongs to the large family of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which each have different substrate specificities. Aberrant or derailed expression of various MMPs through loss of negative checks is strongly associated with tumor invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis, as compared to tightly controlled physiological processes such as tissue remodeling, rebuilding, and embryonic development. MMP2 antibody immunostaining coupled with computed tomography is a viable prognostic indicator for small lung adenocarcinomas. Other indicators identified include CD34, MMP9, VEGF, and TIMP2 (1).  ...

TREM1: An inflammatory signal protein with a potential role in cancer

Thursday, December 12, 2013 - 12:20

TREM1 is pro-inflammatory gene that stimulates neutrophil and monocyte-mediated inflammatory responses. This protein is highly expressed in adult liver, lung and spleen. It is also present in the lymph node, spinal cord and heart tissues. TREM-1 plays a critical role in acute inflammatory responses to bacteria. In organs such as the liver, damage occurring due to irritants such as alcohol causes TREM-1 to amplify the inflammatory response by mediating a signalling pathway. This has been confirmed by Dr. Anatolij Horuzsko at Georgia Health Sciences University (1). Their research team found that chronic inflammation is caused due to TREM-1 which then stimulates pattern recognition receptor signalling pathways. This in turn initiates secretion of proinflammatory mediators, increases cell production and therefore creates mutated cells which lead to cancer.  Cancer and chronic...

Aryl Hydrocarbon Signaling: AIP, AhR, ARNT, BMAL1 and more...

Wednesday, December 11, 2013 - 08:39

AH receptor-interacting protein (AIP) is a 37 kD immunophilin-like factor found in a variety of tissues with expression levels ranging from high (spleen, thymus, pituitary heart, placenta and skeletal muscle) to low (liver, kidney and lung). It mediates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling either through ligand receptivity and/or modulating nuclear targeting and has been shown to bind to both the AhR itself as well as the AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT). Historically it was originally identified as a negative regulator for the hepatitis B virus X-associated protein. Mouse knockout studies using the AIP antibody allowed researchers to determine that the association of AIP with survivin mediates mitochondrial import of...


Friday, December 6, 2013 - 15:36

ABCA1 is a key gatekeeper influencing intracellular cholesterol transport, and is an important member of a multifamily of cAMP-dependent anion transporter cell membrane proteins that regulate reverse cholesterol efflux from cells in peripheral tissues to apolipoprotein A1. ABCA1 has a wide expression profile with highest expression levels found in macrophages. ABCA1 antibody helped determine the role of Caveolin 1 in cellular cholesterol homeostasis in caveolin-1 deficient knockout mice (1). University of Washington researchers used ABCA1 antibodies to validate ABCA1 as an anti-inflammatory receptor, helping to explain its protective role against cardiovascular disease (2).


Cre/Lox: The Genomic Utility Knife

Thursday, December 5, 2013 - 13:20

Cre (Cyclization recombination enzyme) is a member of the large family of recombinases. Cre recognizes Lox site loxP, a 34 bp sequence motif from the PI bateriophage. If a DNA segment is flanked by two loxP sites in the same orientation, Cre neatly excises the segment (for later degradation) leaving a single remaining loxP site in the DNA molecule. The Cre/Lox system was first developed in the late 1980's to artificially manipulate gene expression and extensive reviews of the system exist (1). Because the Cre/lox system works in almost any type of cell, it has proven extremely useful, it has been extensively used and there are now numerous and stable animal, plant, and bacterial stocks that already contain the Cre gene driven by various ubiquitous, tissue-specific and/or inducible promoters.

CD34 Serves as an Important Marker in Disease Research

Wednesday, December 4, 2013 - 12:25

CD34 is a membrane protein that aids cells in cell-cell adhesion. Although little is known about its function, CD34 is an important marker for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), muscle satellite cells, and endothelial cells. HSCs can be found in bone marrow and blood of adults; however, because they are relatively rare, historically, HSCs have been difficult to study.  The emergence of flow cytometry and FACS has facilitated the use of antibodies against CD34 to more readily identify, count and even purify these cells.  Researchers most often extract HSCs from umbilical cord blood which is a rich source of these rare cells (1).

All the APE1 facts, and no monkey business

Monday, December 2, 2013 - 13:53

APE1 is involved in repairing oxidative DNA damages in vitro, regulates the redox of transcriptional factors, repairs AP sites in DNA, and is important for embryonic development in mice. Learn more about APE1 in our infographic below.

APE1 Infographic


Novus Biologicals offers APE1 reagents for your research needs including:


1. Genecards

53BP1, DNA Damage Response and Tumor Suppression

Tuesday, November 26, 2013 - 13:20

53BP1 (p53 binding protein 1) was originally thought to be a p53 transcriptional enhancing partner, but now has been shown to be an ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) substrate. It is a late DNA damage response (DDR) marker, appearing in the telophase/cytokinesis phase in mitotic mammalian cells (1). 53BP1 antibody was employed to show the absence of a full DDR response in mitotic cells – this response is also suppressed by high levels of cyclin-dependent kinase1 (CDK1) activation. Another cell cycle study involving 53BP1 antibody focused on characterizing those genomic loci within metaphase chromosomes that are prone to gaps and breaks, also known as common fragile sites (2).  Their findings suggest a model of DNA damage where the formation of large nuclear bodies containing 53BP1, MCD1, and OPT domains is triggered...

Understanding Protein Folding with GRP78

Monday, November 25, 2013 - 15:30

HSP70 family member GRP78 (78 kD glucose-regulated protein) is an abundant protein cofactor commonly known as a molecular chaperone. Found in most eukaryotes, Hsp genes are members of a heat-inducible multigene family. These proteins are found in most cellular compartments of eukaryotes - everything from nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts, to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cytosol. Its main role is thought to be in the ER where it controls the maturation of glycoproteins and protein folding, but it also functions as a ligand receptor and is expressed on the cell surface, as reviewed by Gonzalez-Gronow (1). There, its association with a variety of proteins such as the voltage-dependent anion channel (...

NOX4 Antibodies: Don't NOX them until you've tried them

Thursday, November 21, 2013 - 11:52

NOX4 is an NADPH oxidase that generates superoxide within the cell. It is primarily found in vascular cells, fibroblasts, and osteoclasts, with abundant expression in the kidney. Unlike its family members NOX1 and NOX2, NOX4 is constitutively active, producing primarily H2O2 rather than O2. This different species generated triggers NOX4-specific actions in downstream cell signaling. NOX4 regulates signaling cascades through phosphatase inhibition and also function as an oxygen sensor that regulates the KCNK3 potassium channel. NOX4 appears to be involved in a wide variety of processes from insulin regulation, apoptosis, and bone resorption, to LPS-mediated activation of NFkB. Not surprisingly, NOX4 has been implicated in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and...

HIF-2 alpha, Tumor Suppression and Cell Survival

Wednesday, November 20, 2013 - 10:12

HIF-2 alpha is one subunit within the HIF-2 nuclear protein that regulates cellular responses to hypoxia (low oxygen tension conditions). Hydroxylation post-translational modifications on particular HIF residues target them for degradation. Luo, et al. were able to show with HIF-2 alpha antibody that a C-terminus novel variant of the typical bipartite-type nuclear localization signal (NLS) drove the nuclear accumulation of HIF-2 through an ubquitin-proteasome independent mechanism (1). This NLS is found and conserved in the other HIF family members (HIF-1 and HIF-3) as well. The tumor suppressor gene von Hippel Lindau (VHL) destabilizes HIF-1 and HIF-2, and expression studies with...

Park7/DJ-1: A Reliable Biomarker for Parkinson's Disease?

Monday, November 18, 2013 - 12:20

The product of the Parkinson's disease 7 (Park7/DJ-1) gene belongs to the peptidase C56 family of proteins and appears to have two transcriptional variants. It is a positive regulator of androgen receptor-dependent transcription, and some evidence suggests it may also function as a redox-sensitive chaperone and sensor for oxidative stress. It apparently protects neurons against oxidative stress and cell death. Defects in the Park7 gene result in the autosomal recessive form of early-onset Parkinson’s disease. While much work has focused on underlying genetic factors in this disease, less is known about the specific molecular interactions. Jin, et. al. first used Park7 antibody to identify five novel proteins complexed with Park7/DJ-1 and alpha-synuclein, suggesting their role as docking proteins and clearing up some...

Thymoquinone: A Natural Product with Diverse Therapeutic Potential

Friday, November 15, 2013 - 12:27

Thymoquinone (2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, or TQ) is derived from the seeds of the black cumin plant Nigella sativa. It has been reported to have a number of beneficial properties including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic activities and, like many other natural products, derivatives and analogues of thymoquinone are being synthesised in an effort to increase its therapeutic potential.

Normal cellular metabolism gives rise to reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and super oxide anion radicals (O2 -), however these products must be carefully regulated since they are highly reactive and can be toxic. An imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species and their subsequent detoxification is known as oxidative stress, and this is implicated in a number of disease states including Alzheimer’s disease,...

Huntington's Disease Infographic

Thursday, November 14, 2013 - 09:17

Huntington's disease is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorder which impairs cognition, causes issues with movement, and has associated behavioral changes and emotional problems. There is currently no cure for Huntington's disease, but research is focused on understanding the function of the Huntington's disease gene. Learn more in our infographic below.

Huntington's Disease



2. Mayo Clinic
3. NIH
4. NIH

Alzheimer's Disease Infographic

Tuesday, November 12, 2013 - 12:42

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that impacts cognitive function. Research is currently being done to understand different genetic, environmental and biological factors which contribute to the disease to find a cure. Learn more in our infographic about Alzheimer's disease below.

Alzheimer's Disease


5. ...

Parkinson's Disease Infographic

Monday, November 11, 2013 - 11:49

Parkinson's disease affects the nervous system which controls movement. Damage to the levels of dopamine in the brain impairs the ability to relay messages to parts of the body which control movement. While the exact cause of the disease is unknown, researchers are examining genetic causes linked to the LRRK2 gene and environmental factors.

Parkinson's disease infographic


1. UMM
2. PDF
3. BMJ
4. Mayo Clinic
5. ...

c-Myc: Much More Than Just an Epitope Tag

Friday, November 8, 2013 - 13:52

The Myc gene family of proto-oncogenes consists of nuclear transcription factors that include l-Myc, n-Myc and c-Myc. They are key players in fundamental processes such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism, and adhesion. Myc proteins have dual roles as both transcriptional activators and repressors, and are downstream of a wide assortment of mitogenic signals (such as EGF, Wnt, and PI3K) and are often upregulated or mutated in many cancer types. The human p62 c-Myc binds DNA in a non-specific manner and its heterodimerization with other basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins such as Myc-associated Factor X (MAX) facilitates more efficient DNA-binding. Because c-Myc upregulates transcription of several...

Neurokinin 1 Receptor: Implications in Tumor Suppression

Thursday, November 7, 2013 - 15:09

The neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1), commonly referred to as tachykinin receptor 1, is a 401 amino acid, 46 kDA protein encoded by the TACR1 gene localized on chromosome 2 (2p13.1-p12). It is a member of the tachykinin receptor gene family (including NK2 Receptor and NK3 Receptor) which is involved in the activation of phospholipase C, interactions with G proteins, and functioning in multiple hydrophobic transmembrane regions. NK1 is highly prevalent in the central nervous system (CNS), specifically in the amygdala, striatum, peripheral tissues, and some hypothalamic and thalamic nuclei. It functions in association with specific G proteins, acting in a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system as well as operating in the regulation of phosphatidylinositol metabolism of ...

Touch Infographic: From Touch Receptors to the Brain

Wednesday, November 6, 2013 - 12:17

The body contains thousands of receptors and nerves which allow us to experience the sense of touch, also referred to as tactile perception. The somatosensory system allows organisms to perceive and decode a wide range of tactile stimuli to allow for the recognition of objects, ability to discern textures and provide feedback on sensory-motor systems. 

Touch Infographic: From Touch Receptors to the Brain

Novus Biologicals offers reagents mentioned in the infographic including:


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