Recombinant Mouse LIX Protein

Images

 
Recombinant Mouse LIX (Catalog # 433-MC) chemoattracts BaF3mouse pro B cells transfected with human CXCR2. The ED50 for this effect is0.03-0.1 µg/mL.

Product Details

Summary
Reactivity MuSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity

Order Details

View Available Formulations
Catalog# & Formulation Size Price

Recombinant Mouse LIX Protein Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to chemoattract BaF3 mouse pro‑B cells transfected with human CXCR2. The ED50 for this effect is 0.03-0.1 µg/mL. Measured by its ability to induce myeloperoxidase release from cytochalasin B-treated human neutrophils. Schröder, J.M. et al. (1987) J. Immunol. 139:3474. The ED50 for this effect is 1-3 μg/mL.
Source
E. coli-derived mouse LIX protein
Val45-Ala118
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Val45
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
Gene
Cxcl5
Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Endotoxin Note
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.

Applications/Dilutions

Theoretical MW
8 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
Publications
Read Publications using
433-MC in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Buffer
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 25 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.

Notes

This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Mouse LIX Protein

  • LIX

Background

LIX (Liposaccharide-Induced CXC chemokine; also GARG-8) is a secreted 8-10 kDa member of the ELR+ class, CXC family, chemokine superfamily of molecules (1-4).  It is one of five CXC chemokines in mouse, and serves as a functional equivalent of human ENA-78 and GCP-2.  Mouse LIX is synthesized as a 132 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains an extended 40 aa signal sequence plus a 92 aa mature peptide (aa 41-132) (1, 5).  No glycosylation has been reported for LIX.  Depending upon the author, the 92 aa full-length isoform is typically referred to as either simply LIX, or LIX (1-92).  Shorter isoforms have an accompanying range designation.  Although LIX has (marginal) activity, proteolytic processing is necessary for full bioactivity (5, 6).  To date, over 25 enzymatically-generated isoforms have been experimentally noted, ranging from 69-92 aa in length (6).  These may show only N-terminal, C-terminal, or dual-end processing, with removal of up to 10 N-terminal amino acids (#41-48) and 13 or 14 C-terminal amino acids (#119-132).  In vivo, it appears that multiple MMPs act sequentially (and redundantly) to generate a "standard" LIX isoform that consists of aa 5-78 of the mature form.  It is suggested that initially, MMP-2 is induced locally, and cleaves LIX 1-92 between Ser4-Val5.  This truncation results in an active product (LIX [5-92]) that chemoattracts PMNs.  Newly arriving PMNs now secrete MMP-9, which performs the same cleavage as MMP-2, chemoattracting more PMNs.  Neutrophil-derived MMP-8 is secreted next, which cleaves both the Ser4-Val5 and Lys79-Arg80 bonds, creating LIX (5-79) (7, 8).  Although somewhat unclear, macrophage derived MMP-12 also contributes to LIX activation, and in some circumstances cleaves the ELR motif of activated chemokines (but not LIX), rendering them inactive and downmodulating the inflammatory response (9).  Over aa 41-119 of the precursor, mouse LIX shares 73% and 63% aa sequence identity with rat LIX and human GCP-2, respectively.  Mouse LIX is known to be active on human cells (6).  Cells known to express LIX vary widely and include oligodendroglia (10), adipose tissue stem cells and macrophages (11, 12), platelets and endothelial cells (13), colonic epithelium (14), cardiomyocytes (15), Type II greater alveolar cells and ileal enterocytes (16), hepatocytes (17) and fibroblasts from multiple tissues (18, 19, 20). 

LIX is both constitutively expressed (16), and induced in response to a variety of stimuli, including LPS (18, 21), TNF-alpha (22), mast cell protease-6 (19), leptin (14), and oncostatin M (20).  Circulating LIX has two known signaling receptors, CXCR2 and CXCR1. Although the former is considered most important, the latter may prove to have nonredundant functions (6, 21, 23).  LIX also binds to DARC, a non-signaling receptor prominently expressed on erythrocytes.  Although non-signaling, this receptor serves as a sink or depot for LIX, keeping it from activating CXCR1 and CXCR2 (24).  Functionally, LIX is best known as a chemoattractant for neutrophils (5, 9, 15).  But it also reportedly chemoattracts macrophages and induces production of NO (14, 25), regulates gut IL-17 and G-CSF secretion (16), promotes TNF-alpha expression from mast cells and macrophages (26), and induces neurite outgrowth and protects against neuronal apoptosis by serving as an atypical growth factor (10).

  1. Hall-Glenn, F. and K.M. Lyons (2011) Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 68:3209.
  2. Bradham, D.M. et al. (1991) J. Cell Biol. 114:1285.
  3. Gao, R. and D.R. Brigstock (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279:8848.
  4. Schober, J.M. et al. (2002) Blood 99:4457.
  5. Heng, E.C.K. et al. (2006) J. Cell Biochem. 98:409.
  6. Jedsadayanmata, A. et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274:24321.
  7. Gao, R. et al. (2003) Hepatol. Res. 27:214.
  8. Mercurio, S. et al. (2004) Development 131:2137.
  9. Wahab, N.A. et al. (2005) J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16:340.
  10. Abreu, J.G. et al. (2002) Nat. Cell Biol. 4:599.
  11. Hashimoto, G. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277:36288.
  12. Khodosevich, K. et al. (2013) Neuron 79:1136.
  13. Shi-Wen, X. et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281:10715.
  14. Lee, C.H. et al. (2010) J. Clin. Invest. 120:3340.
  15. Canalis, E. et al. (2010) Endocrinology 151:3490.
  16. Nakanishi, T. et al. (2000) Endocrinology 141:264.
  17. Ivkovic, S. et al. (2003) Development 130:2779.
  18. Hall-Glenn, F. et al. (2012) PLoS One 7:e30562.
  19. Shimo, T. et al. (1999) J. Biochem. 126:137.

Customers Who Viewed This Item Also Viewed...

MAB208
Species: Hu
Applications: WB, Simple Western, CyTOF-ready, ELISA(Cap), ELISA(Det), ICC, ICFlow, Neut, ELISA(Sta)
MAB333
Species: Hu
Applications: WB, ELISA(Cap), ELISA(Det), Neut, ELISA(Sta)
MAB331
Species: Hu
Applications: Flow, IHC, CyTOF-ready, Neut
NBP2-53097
Species: Hu, Mu
Applications: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P
MAB330
Species: Hu
Applications: Flow, IHC, CyTOF-reported, Neut
433-MC
Species: Mu
Applications: Bioactivity

Publications for LIX (433-MC)(3)

Reviews for LIX (433-MC) (0)

There are no reviews for LIX (433-MC). By submitting a review you will receive an Amazon e-Gift Card or Novus Product Discount.
  • Review with no image -- $10/€7/£6/$10 CAD/¥70 Yuan/¥1110 Yen
  • Review with an image -- $25/€18/£15/$25 CAD/¥150 Yuan/¥2500 Yen

FAQs for LIX (433-MC) (0)

There are no specific FAQs related to this product. Read our general customer & technical service FAQs.

Customers Who Bought This Also Bought

Contact Information

Product PDFs

Calculators

Concentration Calculator

The concentration calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume, mass or concentration of your vial. Simply enter your mass, volume, or concentration values for your reagent and the calculator will determine the rest.

=
÷

Review this Product

Be the first to review our Recombinant Mouse LIX Protein and receive a gift card or discount.

Bioinformatics

Gene Symbol Cxcl5
Uniprot