>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
13.3 kDa. Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
Interleukin 16, also named lymphocyte chemoattractant factor (LCF), was originally identified as a CD8+ T-cell-derived chemoattractant for CD4+ cells. The biologically active form of IL-16 was originally proposed to be a homotetramer of 14 kDa chains containing 130 amino acid residue subunits. The complete pro-IL-16 cDNA was subsequently cloned and shown to encode a 631 amino acid residue hydrophilic protein that lacked a signal peptide. The original 130 amino acid residue polypeptide is now believed to have been derived from the C terminus of the precursor. IL-16 precursor protein has been detected in the lysates of various cells including mitogen stimulated PBMCs. The biologically active and secreted natural IL-16 is assumed to be a proteolytic cleavage product of pro-IL-16 generated by proteases present in or on activated CD8+ cells. A likely cleavage site was proposed to be at aspartate residue 510. This would yield a 121 amino acid residue protein, smaller than the 130 aa residue protein first described. The expression of IL-16 precursor mRNA has been detected in various tissues including spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, peripheral leukocytes, bone marrow and cerebellum. The gene for IL-16 precursor has been localized to chromosome 15. The biological activities ascribed to IL-16 are reported to be dependent on the cell surface expression of CD4, suggesting that IL-16 is a CD4 ligand. Besides its chemotactic properties, IL-16 has also been shown to suppress HIV-1 replication in vitro. Recombinant E. coli-derived IL-16 produced at R&D Systems is present mostly as a monomer, exhibits chemotactic activity for lymphocytes at high concentrations, lacks chemotactic activites for monocytes, and binds the extracellular domain of CD4 with low affinity.
Cruikshank, W.W. et al. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:5109.
Baier, M. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:5273.
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