Recombinant Human CXCL1/GRO alpha Protein


Recombinant Human CXCL1/GRO alpha (Catalog # 275-GR) chemoattractsBaF3 mouse pro B cells transfected withhuman CXCR2. The ED50 for this effect is 1‑4 ng/mL.

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Recombinant Human CXCL1/GRO alpha Protein Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to induce myeloperoxidase release from cytochalasin B-treated human neutrophils. Schröder, J.M. et al. (1987) J. Immunol. 139:3474. The ED50 for this effect is 0.15‑0.3 µg/mL. Measured by its ability to chemoattract BaF3 mouse pro‑B cells transfected with human CXCR2. The ED50 for this effect is 1‑4 ng/mL.
E. coli-derived human CXCL1/GRO alpha/KC/CINC-1 protein
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Endotoxin Note
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


Theoretical MW
7.9 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
Read Publications using
275-GR in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human CXCL1/GRO alpha Protein

  • CINC1
  • CINC-1
  • CXCL1
  • GRO alpha
  • KC
  • MGSA-alpha


CXCL1, also known as KC, GRO alpha, and CINC-1, is an approximately 8 kDa proinflammatory chemokine that plays a key role in neutrophil migration and activation (1). Mature human CXCL1 shares 64% and 67% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat CXCL1, respectively (2). It is produced by many cell types in inflammatory sites and during chronic inflammatory diseases (1). CXCL1 can associate into bioactive dimers and primarily signals through CXCR2/IL-8 RB but can also bind with lower affinity to CXCR2/IL-8 RA (3-5). It induces neutrophil migration, extravasation, respiratory burst, and degranulation and also induces T cells to produce proinflammatory IL-17 (4, 6, 7). CXCL1 additionally binds to Syndecan-1 on epithelial cells which acts as a sink for CXCL1 activity until Syndecan-1 cleavage by MMP-7 (8). CXCL1 is up-regulated in spinal cord astrocytes by inflammatory stimuli or tumor cell injection, and it exacerbates pain sensation by potentiating excitatory NMDA neurotransmission (9, 10). In the circulatory system, CXCL1 interacts with CXCR2 on endothelial cells to promote lymphatic tube formation and angiogenesis (11, 12). It promotes the hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes resulting in cartilage matrix deposition, calcification, and remodeling (13). It interacts with both CXCR1 and CXCR2 on adipose stromal cells and promotes their recruitment to prostate tumors in obese patients (14). It also binds CXCR2 on ovarian cancer cells, leading to cleavage of cell surface HB-EGF, transactivation of EGF R, and cell proliferation (15).
  1. Strieter, R.M. et al. (2005) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 16:593.
  2. Baker, N.E. et al. (1990) Nucl. Acids Res. 18:6453.
  3. Sawant, K.V. et al. (2015) J. Innate Immun. 7:647.
  4. Geiser, T. et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268:15419.
  5. Ahuja, S.K. and P.M. Murphy (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271:20545.
  6. Jin, L. et al. (2014) J. Immunol. 193:3549.
  7. De Filippo, K. et al. (2013) Blood 121:4930.
  8. Gill, S.E. et al. (2016) Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. PMID 26934670.
  9. Cao, D.-L. et al. (2014) Exp. Neurol. 261:328.
  10. Xu, J. et al. (2014) J. Neuroinflamm. 11:38.
  11. Xu, J. et al. (2012) Int. J. Cancer 130:787.
  12. Miyake, M. et al. (2013) Lab. Invest. 93:768.
  13. Merz, D. et al. (2003) J. Immunol. 171:4406.
  14. Zhang, T. et al. (2016) Nat. Commun. 7:11674.
  15. Bolitho, C. et al. (2010) Endocr. Relat. Cancer 17:929.

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Publications for CXCL1/GRO alpha/KC/CINC-1 (275-GR)(22)

We have publications tested in 4 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, N/A, Virus.

We have publications tested in 5 applications: Binding Assay, Bioassay, ELISA Standard, ELISA development, In Vivo.

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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 22. Show All 22 Publications.
Publications using 275-GR Applications Species
M Werner-Kle, S Scheitler, M Hoffmann, I Hodak, K Dietz, P Lehnert, V Naimer, B Polzer, S Treitschke, C Werno, A Markiewicz, K Weidele, Z Czyz, U Hohenleutn, C Hafner, S Haferkamp, M Berneburg, P Rümmele, A Ulmer, CA Klein Genetic alterations driving metastatic colony formation are acquired outside of the primary tumour in melanoma Nat Commun, 2018;9(1):595. 2018 [PMID: 29426936] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
EK Kim, S Moon, DK Kim, X Zhang, J Kim CXCL1 induces senescence of cancer-associated fibroblasts via autocrine loops in oral squamous cell carcinoma PLoS ONE, 2018;13(1):e0188847. 2018 [PMID: 29360827] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
B Schludi, ASM Moin, C Montemurro, T Gurlo, AV Matveyenko, D Kirakossia, DW Dawson, SM Dry, PC Butler, AE Butler Islet inflammation and ductal proliferation may be linked to increased pancreatitis risk in type 2 diabetes JCI Insight, 2017;2(13):. 2017 [PMID: 28679961] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Senescent peritoneal mesothelium creates a niche for ovarian cancer metastases Cell Death Dis, 2016;7(12):e2565. 2016 [PMID: 28032864] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Early dissemination seeds metastasis in breast cancer Nature, 2016;0(0):. 2016 [PMID: 27974799] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Wang H, Hong L, Huang J, Jiang Q, Tao R, Tan C, Lu N, Wang C, Ahmed M, Lu Y, Liu Z, Shi W, Lai E, Wilcox C, Han F P2RX7 sensitizes Mac-1/ICAM-1-dependent leukocyte-endothelial adhesion and promotes neurovascular injury during septic encephalopathy. Cell Res, 2015;25(6):674-90. 2015 [PMID: 25998681]
Kawada M, Inoue H, Ohba S, Yoshida J, Masuda T, Yamasaki M, Usami I, Sakamoto S, Abe H, Watanabe T, Yamori T, Shibasaki M, Nomoto A Stromal cells positively and negatively modulate the growth of cancer cells: stimulation via the PGE2-TNFalpha-IL-6 pathway and inhibition via secreted GAPDH-E-cadherin interaction. PLoS ONE, 2015;10(3):e0119415. 2015 [PMID: 25785838] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Jung J, Lee S, Kim J, Lee S, Sung H, An J, Park Y, Kim B CXCR2 and its related ligands play a novel role in supporting the pluripotency and proliferation of human pluripotent stem cells. Stem Cells Dev, 2015;24(8):948-61. 2015 [PMID: 25390768] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Anderson J, Titz B, Akiyama R, Komisopoulou E, Park A, Tap W, Graeber T, Denny C Phosphoproteomic profiling reveals IL6-mediated paracrine signaling within the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors. Mol Cancer Res, 2014;12(12):1740-54. 2014 [PMID: 25092916] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Dong Y, Kabir S, Lee E, Son D CXCR2-driven ovarian cancer progression involves upregulation of proinflammatory chemokines by potentiating NF-kappaB activation via EGFR-transactivated Akt signaling. PLoS ONE, 2013;8(12):e83789. 2013 [PMID: 24376747] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Show All 22 Publications.

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Gene Symbol CXCL1