Recombinant Human CCL2/MCP-1 Protein

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1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human CCL2/MCP-1 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 10 kDa.
MALDI-TOF analysis of Recombinant Human CCL2/MCP-1. The major peak corresponds to the calculated molecular mass, 8679 Da. The minor peak at 8887 is a matrix-associated artifact of the MALDI-TOF.
Recombinant Human CCL2/MCP-1 (Catalog # 279-MC) chemoattracts the BaF3 mouse pro-B cell line transfected with human CCR2A. The ED50 for this effect is 5-30 ng/mL.

Product Details

Summary
Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity

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Recombinant Human CCL2/MCP-1 Protein Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to chemoattract BaF3 mouse pro‑B cells transfected with human CCR2A. The ED50 for this effect is 5‑30 ng/mL.
Source
E. coli-derived human CCL2/JE/MCP-1 protein
Gln24-Thr99
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Gln24
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
Gene
CCL2
Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Endotoxin Note
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.

Applications/Dilutions

Theoretical MW
8.7 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
SDS-PAGE
10 kDa, reducing conditions
Publications
Read Publications using
279-MC in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Buffer
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.

Notes

This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human CCL2/MCP-1 Protein

  • C-C motif chemokine ligand 2
  • CCL2
  • GDCF-2
  • HC11
  • HSMCR30
  • MCAF
  • Mcp1
  • MCP-1
  • SCYA2
  • SMC-CF

Background

CCL2, also called monocyte chemotactic protein‑1 (MCP‑1) or JE, is a member of the C‑C or beta  chemokine family that is best known as a chemotactic agent for mononuclear cells (1, 2). Human CCL2 cDNA encodes a 99 amino acid (aa) precursor protein with a 23 aa signal peptide and a 76 aa mature protein (2). Removal of the first 5 aa of the mature protein, including the N-terminal pyrrolidone carboxylic acid‑modified glutamine, occurs naturally by metalloproteinase cleavage and down‑regulates activity but not receptor binding (3). CCL2 may form multiple bands from 8.7‑13.5 kDa on SDS‑PAGE due to non‑covalent dimerization and variable carbohydrate content (3). Mature human CCL2 shares 78‑79% aa identity with canine, porcine and equine CCL2, while mouse and rat express a form of CCL2 that is extended by 49 aa and shares only ~56% aa identity within the common region. Human CCL2 can, however, induce a response in murine cells (4). Fibroblasts, glioma cells, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes can produce CCL2 either constitutively or upon mitogenic stimulation, but monocytes and macrophages appear to be the major source (1, 2). In addition to its chemotactic activity, CCL2 induces enzyme and cytokine release by monocytes, NK cells and lymphocytes, and histamine release by basophils that express its receptor, CCR2 (2). Additionally, it promotes Th2 polarization in CD4+ T cells (5). CCL2‑mediated recruitment of monocytes to sites of inflammation is proposed to play a role in the pathology of atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis and allergic asthma (6, 7).

  1. Yoshimura, T. et al. (1989) FEBS Lett. 244:487.
  2. Deshmane, S.L. et al. (2009) J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 29:313.
  3. Proost, P. et al.(1998) J. Immunol. 160:4034.
  4. Ju Lee, H. et al. (2015) J. Immunol. 194:3634.
  5. Luther, S.A. and J.G. Cyster (2001) Nat. Immunol. 2:102.
  6. Daly, C. et al. (2003) Microcirculation 10:247.
  7. Aukrust, P. et al. (2008) Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 28:1909.

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    Publications for CCL2/JE/MCP-1 (279-MC)(71)

    We have publications tested in 6 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Bovine, N/A, Virus.

    We have publications tested in 7 applications: Binding Assay, Bioassay, CAR-T (Bioassay), Cell Culture, ELISA (Standard), Hemofiltration Procedure, In Vivo.


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    Binding Assay
    (2)
    Bioassay
    (50)
    CAR-T (Bioassay)
    (1)
    Cell Culture
    (5)
    ELISA (Standard)
    (6)
    Hemofiltration Procedure
    (1)
    In Vivo
    (2)
    All Applications
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    Human
    (52)
    Mouse
    (3)
    Rat
    (5)
    Bovine
    (1)
    N/A
    (5)
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    (1)
    All Species
    Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 71. Show All 71 Publications.
    Publications using 279-MC Applications Species
    X Guo, Y Pan, M Xiong, S Sanapala, C Anastasaki, O Cobb, S Dahiya, DH Gutmann Midkine activation of CD8+ T cells establishes a neuron-immune-cancer axis responsible for low-grade glioma growth Nat Commun, 2020;11(1):2177. 2020 [PMID: 32358581] (Cell Culture, Mouse) Cell Culture Mouse
    D Vreeken, CS Bruikman, SML Cox, H Zhang, R Lalai, A Koudijs, AJ van Zonnev, GK Hovingh, JM van Gils EPH receptor B2 stimulates human monocyte adhesion and migration independently of its EphrinB ligands J. Leukoc. Biol., 2020;0(0):. 2020 [PMID: 32337793] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
    YJ Liao, JM Chen, JY Long, YJ Zhou, BY Liang, Y Zhou Tanshinone IIA Alleviates CCL2-Induced Leaning memory and Cognition Impairment in Rats: A Potential Therapeutic Approach for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder Biomed Res Int, 2020;2020(0):2702175. 2020 [PMID: 32185196] (In Vivo, Rat) In Vivo Rat
    Q Liu, J Song, Y Pan, D Shi, C Yang, S Wang, B Xiong Wnt5a/CaMKII/ERK/CCL2 axis is required for tumor-associated macrophages to promote colorectal cancer progression Int. J. Biol. Sci., 2020;16(6):1023-1034. 2020 [PMID: 32140070] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
    X Tong, H Zeng, P Gu, K Wang, H Zhang, X Lin Monocyte chemoattractant protein?1 promotes the proliferation, migration and differentiation potential of fibroblast?like synoviocytes via the PI3K/P38 cellular signaling pathway Mol Med Rep, 2020;0(0):. 2020 [PMID: 32016482] (Cell Culture, Rat) Cell Culture Rat
    Y Terashima, E Toda, M Itakura, M Otsuji, S Yoshinaga, K Okumura, FHW Shand, Y Komohara, M Takeda, K Kokubo, MC Chen, S Yokoi, H Rokutan, Y Kofuku, K Ohnishi, M Ohira, T Iizasa, H Nakano, T Okabe, H Kojima, A Shimizu, S Kanegasaki, MR Zhang, I Shimada, H Nagase, H Terasawa, K Matsushima Targeting FROUNT with disulfiram suppresses macrophage accumulation and its tumor-promoting properties Nat Commun, 2020;11(1):609. 2020 [PMID: 32001710] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
    E Foxall, A Staszowska, LM Hirvonen, M Georgouli, M Ciccioli, A Rimmer, L Williams, Y Calle, VS Moreno, S Cox, GE Jones, CM Wells PAK4 Kinase Activity Plays a Crucial Role in the Podosome Ring of Myeloid Cells Cell Rep, 2019;29(11):3385-3393.e6. 2019 [PMID: 31825823] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
    S Velasquez, L Prevedel, S Valdebenit, AM Gorska, M Golovko, N Khan, J Geiger, EA Eugenin Circulating levels of ATP is a biomarker of HIV cognitive impairment EBioMedicine, 2019;0(0):. 2019 [PMID: 31806564] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
    R Xu, Y Li, H Yan, E Zhang, X Huang, Q Chen, J Chen, J Qu, Y Liu, J He, Q Yi, Z Cai CCL2 promotes macrophages-associated chemoresistance via MCPIP1 dual catalytic activities in multiple myeloma Cell Death Dis, 2019;10(10):781. 2019 [PMID: 31611552] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
    TN Wu, CK Chen, IC Liu, LS Wu, AT Cheng Effects of GADL1 overexpression on cell migration and the associated morphological changes Sci Rep, 2019;9(1):5298. 2019 [PMID: 30923325] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
    Show All 71 Publications.

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    Bioinformatics

    Gene Symbol CCL2
    Uniprot