Human TGF-beta 1 Protein


1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing single bands at 12 kDa and 24 kDa, respectively.
Human TGF-beta 1 (Catalog # 100-B) inhibits Recombinant Mouse IL‑4 (Catalog #404-ML) induced cell proliferation in theHT-2 mouse T cell line. The ED50 for this effect is 0.04-0.2 ng/mL.

Product Details

Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity

Order Details

View Available Formulations
Catalog# & Formulation Size Price

Human TGF-beta 1 Protein Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of HT‑2 mouse T cells. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The ED50 for this effect is 0.04-0.2 ng/mL.
Human platelet-derived TGF-beta 1 protein
The human platelets used for the isolation of this product were certified by the supplier to be HIV-1 and HBsAg negative at the time of shipment. Human blood products should always be treated in accordance with universal handling precautions.
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
Protein/Peptide Type
Natural Proteins
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Endotoxin Note
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


12 kDa, reducing conditions
Read Publications using
100-B in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 10 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Human TGF-beta 1 Protein

  • DPD1
  • latency-associated peptide
  • TGF beta1
  • TGFB
  • TGFB1
  • TGF-beta 1 protein
  • TGFbeta 1
  • TGF-beta 1
  • TGFbeta
  • TGF-beta-1
  • transforming growth factor beta-1
  • transforming growth factor, beta 1


TGF-beta 1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) is one of three closely related mammalian members of the large TGF-beta  superfamily that share a characteristic cysteine knot structure (1-7). TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3 are highly pleiotropic cytokines that are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (1-4). Each TGF-beta isoform has some non-redundant functions; for TGF-beta 1, mice with targeted deletion show defects in hematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation, and die of overwhelming inflammation (2). Human TGF-beta 1 cDNA encodes a 390 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 29 aa signal peptide and a 361 aa proprotein (8). A furin-like convertase processes the proprotein to generate an N-terminal 249 aa latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a C-terminal 112 aa mature TGF-  beta 1 (8, 9). Disulfide-linked homodimers of LAP and TGF-beta 1 remain non-covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF-beta 1 complex (8-10). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (9, 10). TGF-beta is activated from latency by pathways that include actions of the protease plasmin, matrix metalloproteases, thrombospondin 1 and a subset of integrins (10). Mature human TGF-beta 1 shares 100% aa identity with pig, dog and cow TGF-beta 1, and 99% aa identity with mouse, rat and horse TGF-beta 1. It demonstrates cross-species activity (1). TGF-beta 1 signaling begins with high-affinity binding to a type II ser/thr kinase receptor termed TGF-beta  RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates a second ser/thr kinase receptor, TGF-beta  RI (also called activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) -5), or alternatively,
ALK‑1.This complex phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription (3, 11, 12). Contributions of the accessory receptors betaglycan (also known as TGF-beta  RIII) and endoglin, or use of Smad-independent signaling pathways, allow for disparate actions observed in response to TGF-beta in different contexts (11).

  1. Derynck, R. and K. Miyazono (2008) “TGF-beta and the TGF-beta Family” in The TGF-beta Family, Derynck, R. and K. Miyazono eds., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, p. 29.
  2. Dunker, N. & K. Krieglstein, 2000, Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
  3. Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
  4. Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
  5. Lin, J.S. et al. (2006) Reproduction 132:179.
  6. Hinck, A.P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8517.
  7. Mittl, P.R.E. et al. (1996) Protein Sci. 5:1261.
  8. Derynck, R. et al. (1985) Nature 316:701.
  9. Miyazono, K. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:6407.
  10. Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
  11. de Caestecker, M. et al. (2004) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:1.
  12. Zuniga, J.E. et al. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 354:1052.

Customers Who Viewed This Item Also Viewed...

Species: Hu, Mu
Applications: WB, Simple Western, ChIP, ICC
Species: Hu, Mu, Rt, Po, Bv, Ca, Pm
Applications: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P
Species: Hu, Mu, Rt
Applications: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P
Species: Hu, Mu, Rt, Po, Bv, Ca, Eq, Fe
Applications: WB, Simple Western, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P
Species: Hu
Applications: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P
Species: Hu
Applications: WB, ELISA, ICC
Species: Hu, Mu, Rt, Pm
Applications: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P
Species: Hu, Mu, Rt
Applications: WB, Simple Western, IHC, ICC, KO
Species: Hu
Species: Hu, Mu, Rt
Applications: WB, Simple Western, IHC
Species: Hu
Applications: Bioactivity

Publications for TGF-beta 1 (100-B)(35)

We have publications tested in 5 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Canine, N/A.

We have publications tested in 3 applications: Bioassay, ELISA (Standard), In Vivo.

Filter By Application
ELISA (Standard)
In Vivo
All Applications
Filter By Species
All Species
Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 35. Show All 35 Publications.
Publications using 100-B Applications Species
SR Rønnow, RQ Dabbagh, F Genovese, CB Nanthakuma, VJ Barrett, RB Good, S Brockbank, S Cruwys, H Jessen, GL Sorensen, MA Karsdal, DJ Leeming, JMB Sand Prolonged Scar-in-a-Jar: an in vitro screening tool for anti-fibrotic therapies using biomarkers of extracellular matrix synthesis Respir. Res., 2020;21(1):108. 2020 [PMID: 32381012] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
K Tsubouchi, J Araya, M Yoshida, T Sakamoto, T Koumura, S Minagawa, H Hara, Y Hosaka, A Ichikawa, N Saito, T Kadota, Y Kurita, K Kobayashi, S Ito, Y Fujita, H Utsumi, M Hashimoto, H Wakui, T Numata, Y Kaneko, S Mori, H Asano, H Matsudaira, T Ohtsuka, K Nakayama, Y Nakanishi, H Imai, K Kuwano Involvement of GPx4-Regulated Lipid Peroxidation in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Pathogenesis J. Immunol., 2019;0(0):. 2019 [PMID: 31534007] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
E Engelowski, NF Modares, S Gorressen, P Bouvain, D Semmler, C Alter, Z Ding, U Flögel, J Schrader, H Xu, PA Lang, J Fischer, DM Floss, J Scheller IL-23R Signaling Plays No Role in Myocardial Infarction Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):17078. 2018 [PMID: 30459442] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
QF Li, B Decker-Roc, A Bajaj, K Pumiglia Activation of Ras in the Vascular Endothelium Induces Brain Vascular Malformations and Hemorrhagic Stroke Cell Rep, 2018;24(11):2869-2882. 2018 [PMID: 30208313] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
X Xue, J Ren, X Sun, Y Gui, Y Feng, B Shu, W Wei, Q Lu, Y Liang, W He, J Yang, C Dai Protein kinase C alpha drives fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis by stimulating autophagic flux J. Biol. Chem., 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29794026] (Bioassay, Rat) Bioassay Rat
X Fu, F Sun, F Wang, J Zhang, B Zheng, J Zhong, T Yue, X Zheng, JF Xu, CY Wang Aloperine Protects Mice against DSS-Induced Colitis by PP2A-Mediated PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Suppression Mediators Inflamm., 2017;2017(0):5706152. 2017 [PMID: 29056830] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
Z Zeng, H Yang, Y Wang, J Ren, Y Dai, C Dai Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate Fibroblast Activation and Kidney Fibrosis Involving MTORC2 Signaling Suppression Sci Rep, 2017;7(0):46146. 2017 [PMID: 28393852] (Bioassay, Rat) Bioassay Rat
J Ren, J Li, X Liu, Y Feng, Y Gui, J Yang, W He, C Dai Quercetin Inhibits Fibroblast Activation and Kidney Fibrosis Involving the Suppression of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and ?-catenin Signaling Sci Rep, 2016;6(0):23968. 2016 [PMID: 27052477] (Bioassay, Rat) Bioassay Rat
Li J, Ren J, Liu X, Jiang L, He W, Yuan W, Yang J, Dai C Rictor/mTORC2 signaling mediates TGFbeta1-induced fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis. Kidney Int, 2015;88(3):515-27. 2015 [PMID: 25970154] (Bioassay, Rat) Bioassay Rat
Dayer C, Stamenkovic I Recruitment of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) to the Fibroblast Cell Surface by Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 (LH3) Triggers Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta) Activation and Fibroblast Differentiation. J Biol Chem, 2015;290(22):13763-78. 2015 [PMID: 25825495] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Show All 35 Publications.

Reviews for TGF-beta 1 (100-B) (0)

There are no reviews for TGF-beta 1 (100-B). By submitting a review you will receive an Amazon e-Gift Card or Novus Product Discount.
  • Review with no image -- $10/€7/£6/$10 CAD/¥70 Yuan/¥1110 Yen
  • Review with an image -- $25/€18/£15/$25 CAD/¥150 Yuan/¥2500 Yen

FAQs for TGF-beta 1 (100-B) (0)

There are no specific FAQs related to this product. Read our general customer & technical service FAQs.

Other Available Formats

Additional TGF-beta 1 Products

Bioinformatics Tool for TGF-beta 1 (100-B)

Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to TGF-beta 1 (100-B). Need help? Read the Bioinformatics Tool Guide for instructions on using this tool.
Visit Tool

Diseases for TGF-beta 1 (100-B)

Discover more about diseases related to TGF-beta 1 (100-B).

Pathways for TGF-beta 1 (100-B)

View related products by pathway.

PTMs for TGF-beta 1 (100-B)

Learn more about PTMs related to TGF-beta 1 (100-B).

Blogs on TGF-beta 1.

TGF-beta 1 - a versatile signaling molecule with roles in development and disease
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family consists of a wide variety of signaling proteins with roles in development. TGF-beta signaling controls growth, differentiation, and immune responses and is often misregulated in cancer. TGF-beta...  Read full blog post.

Customers Who Bought This Also Bought

Contact Information

Product PDFs


Concentration Calculator

The concentration calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume, mass or concentration of your vial. Simply enter your mass, volume, or concentration values for your reagent and the calculator will determine the rest.


Review this Product

Be the first to review our Human TGF-beta 1 Protein and receive a gift card or discount.


Gene Symbol TGFB1