Connexin 43

ATG9A - early marker autophagosome assembly

ATG9A is the only essential integral membrane protein involved in autophagy. ATG9A contains six transmembrane domains and initiates the assembly of autophagosomes. The autophagosome is a double-membrane structure that engulfs and eventually degrades cytoplasmic materials such as organelles or macromolecules. Assembly of the autophagosome requires the delivery of lipids and membrane components to initiate and expand the double-membrane pre-autophagosome structure called the isolation membrane.

SOX2 - a stem cell transcription factor

The SOX gene family encodes a group of highly conserved transcription factors defined by the presence of a conserved high motility group (HMG) DNA-binding domain. They are involved in embryonic development regulation and cell fate determination. All SOX proteins have a single HMG box and bind linear DNA in a sequence-specific manner, resulting in the bending of DNA through large angles. This bending opens the DNA helix for some distance, which may affect the binding and interactions of other transcription factors.

Connexin 43 and Permeability through Gap Junctions

Gap junctions consist of Connexins (Cx), a family of proteins that form channels linking the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. All Connexin molecules have four membrane-spanning domains, two extracellular domains, and a cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal tail of varying length that has an important role in the regulation of the gating properties of the channel. Interestingly Connexin 43 also known as gap junction alpha-1 protein is one of the most abundant gap-junction protein.