Using a STAT3 antibody in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an important oncogenic transcriptional factor that mediates tumor induced immune suppression.  Specifically, STAT3 transmits signals from cytokines and growth factor receptors in the plasma membrane (PM) to the nucleus, where they alter gene transcription.  Because of this transcriptional regulatory role, STAT3 also plays a part in regulating transcription of many critical genes that are involved in apoptosis, cell differentiation, immune response, tumor formation and more.  Using a

Synapsin I: Implicated in synaptic activity across a diverse range of studies

Synapsins are a family of neuronal proteins that are most renowned for their activity in modulating the pre-synaptic terminal.  Synapsin’s behavior is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases, which alter the way that synapsin’s interact with actin filaments and other nearby proteins.  There are three isoforms of Synapsin – Synapsin I, II and III.  Synapsin I specifically localizes to the membrane of presynaptic vesicles and plays a role in regulation of axonogenesis and synaptogenesis.

MAPK3/ERK1 - A signal transduction pathway with roles in development and disease

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important signaling proteins needed to transmit and relay extracellular stimuli and to illicit intracellular responses (1). The MAPK family of proteins are serine/threonine kinases that are able to phosphorylate and activate downstream kinases in a signal cascade that regulates diverse cell responses such as gene expression, metabolism, apoptosis, and differentiation (1). Notable members of the MAPK family include ERK, JNK, and p38 (1).

CXCR4 Studies on Neural and Stem Cells

The CXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4) protein is one member of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR1) family. As a multipass membrane protein that is found in several tissues, it is the receptor for the C-X-C chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1. The CXCR4 ligand works by modulating intracellular calcium ion levels and activating the MAPK1/MAPK3 signal pathways. CXCR4 is also a receptor for extracellular ubiquitin, which produces enhanced levels of intracellular calcium and reduced levels of cellular cAMP.