Epigenetics of Depression: How Can Psychological Stress Alter Your DNA?

Autophagy Research Update: What a difference a year makes!

Repurposing FDA-approved drugs to combat the rise of antibiotic resistance

CD95 Mediates Neurovascular Development

The effect of antioxidants and the NFkB p65 pathway in inflammation

NFkB is a transcription factor that plays a role in the expression of genes involved in immune response, inflammation, metastasis, cell survival and more. RelA (p65) is one member of the NFkB mammalian family, alongside other subunits.

STING in Innate Immunity and Cancer: What’s the Buzz About?

STING (STimulator of INterferon Genes protein) acts as a sensor of cytosolic DNA. Bacteria/Virus or self-derived DNA in the cytosol activates the STING pathway and promotes the production of type I interferons (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta). STING also participates in cell death signaling through its association with MHC-II and the ERK pathway. STING has been suggested to interact with DDX58/RIG-I, MAVS, SSR2, RNF5, TRIM56, TBK1, IFIT1 and IFIT2.

CD90 (Cluster of differentiation 90)

CD90 is a 25-35kD glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked glycoprotein receptor of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. It is found on murine T-cells, thymocytes, neuronal cells, granulocytic lineage-derived cells, hematopoietic stem cells, fibroblasts, neurons, and Kupffer's cells. CD90 is often used as a marker for a variety of stem cells and mature neuronal axon processes.  CD90 appears to play a role in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and adhesion during synaptogenesis, nerve regeneration, apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and metastasis.

Integrin beta 1 binding protein 2

ITGB1BP2 is a muscle-specific protein cloned by a rat created by Branccio's group in Italy that was found to interact with the cytoplasmic domain of integrin beta 11. It is expressed only in heart and skeletal muscle but is not essential for normal development and differentiation of these tissues. Branccio's group published a follow-up study in Nature Medicine using an ITGB1BP2 antibody that the protein plays a critical role in sensing mechanical stress due to pressure overloading2.

Aromatase - A Key Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of Estrogens

The enzyme, aromatase, belongs to cytochrome P450 family of monooxygenases known for their key role in drug catabolism and cholesterol/steroid synthesis. Aromatase uses a heme-group as a co-factor to catalyze the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens. This conversion includes that of testosterone into estradiol as well as androstenedione to estrone. Aromatase is a peripheral membrane protein.

TRAIL-R1: A Trail of Death and Destruction

Cells undergo apoptotic programmed cell death in response to various stimuli. The process is required for morphogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and host defense. Certain cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and Fas ligand signal through death domain-containing receptors such as tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and Fas.