Virology Bacteria and Parasites

Toll-like receptor 2 activation contributes to oral squamous cell carcinoma development and miRNA-mediated drug resistance

How to identify B cell subsets using flow cytometry

Lipopolysaccharide from gut microbiome localizes in human atherosclerotic plaques and promotes TLR4-mediated oxidative stress

Toll-like receptors in the intestinal epithelial cells

NOX2 oxidase is a potential target for broad-spectrum antiviral therapies

TIM-3, a critical immune checkpoint in HIV research

CD4+ T-helper cells (Th) are the white blood lymphocytes expressing surface glycoprotein antigen CD4. These T-helper cells play an important role in the adaptive immune system by releasing T cell cytokines that help other immune cells to suppress or regulate immune responses. CD4+ T-helper lymphocytes can be divided into two types (Th1 and Th2) based on their cytokine secretion. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immune response to intracellular pathogens and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.

How Adenovirus and Adeno-Associated Virus Work as Gene Therapy Vectors

Adenoviruses comprise a family of medium sized, non-enveloped viruses that were originally isolated from human adenoids (Rowe et al., 1953). These viruses contain a double stranded DNA genome within an icosahedral nucleocapsid capable of penetrating an endosome without the need for envelope fusion.

PABP: A central regulator of mRNA translation

PABP is found complexed to the 3-prime poly(A) tail of eukaryotic mRNA and is required for poly(A) shortening, translation initiation, and possibly mRNA export and import. In humans, PABPs are small nuclear isoforms within a conserved gene family of at least 3 functional proteins: PABP1 (PABPC1), inducible PABP (iPABP, or PABPC4), and PABP3 (PABPC3). PABPs are of special interest because due to their high affinity for A-rich mRNA sequences, they are involved in all mRNA-dependent events.

Virus Appreciation Day Infographic

Viruses infect host cells with their genetic material and then reproduce. They are found in humans, plants, bacteria and other places where they can infect cells, adapt and change. In celebration of Virus Appreciation Day, a day discover more about viruses, learn more about viruses in our infographic.

Perforin a Protective Serial Killer

Secretory granule-mediated cell death is one of the the key mechanisms for elimination of virus-infected and transformed target cells by cytotoxic lymphocytes.

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