S-arrestin Antibody (S128)

Images

 
Western Blot: S-arrestin Antibody (S128) [NBP2-25161] - Blot of bovine retinal extracts. The antibody stains a band corresponing to S-arrestin at about 48 kDa.
Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: S-arrestin Antibody (S128) [NBP2-25161] - Confocal image of a pig retina stained with NBP2-25161 (green). S-arrestin is most abundant in the outer segments (OS) and inner surface ...read more

Product Details

Summary
Reactivity Hu, Mu, Rt, Po, Bv, EqSpecies Glossary
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC
Clone
S128
Clonality
Monoclonal
Host
Mouse
Conjugate
Unconjugated
Concentration
1 mg/ml

S-arrestin Antibody (S128) Summary

Immunogen
Recombinant bovine S-arrestin with the first 20 amino acids of the C-terminus truncated [UniProt# P08168]
Isotype
IgG1
Clonality
Monoclonal
Host
Mouse
Gene
SAG
Purity
Protein G purified
Innovator's Reward
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Applications/Dilutions

Dilutions
  • Western Blot 1:5000
  • Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence 1:1000
  • Immunohistochemistry 1:1000
Application Notes
This S-arrestin (S128) antibody is useful for Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence and Western Blot, where a band can be seen at ~48 kDa.
Theoretical MW
48 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Store at 4C short term. Aliquot and store at -20C long term. Avoid freeze-thaw cycles.
Buffer
PBS, 50% glycerol (1:1)
Preservative
5mM Sodium Azide
Concentration
1 mg/ml
Purity
Protein G purified

Alternate Names for S-arrestin Antibody (S128)

  • arrestin 1
  • RP47,48 kDa protein
  • S-antigen; retina and pineal gland (arrestin)
  • S-arrestin
  • visual arrestin

Background

Arrestin proteins are a family of regulators of cell signaling of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). S-arrestin was first discovered as a result of the experimental model of human uveitis, an autoimmune disease of the eye. In this model, called experimental allergic uveitis, animals were injected with extracts made from the retina of the same species mixed with Freund's complete adjuvant. The animals mounted a strong immune response to the extract, and the antibody response was used to identify several immunogenic retinal proteins. One of these was called S-antigen, for soluble antigen. The protein was found to be abundant in retina, about 48 kDa in molecular weight, and localized in the outer segments of the photoreceptors. Several years later, Hermann Kuhn and colleagues discovered that this protein binds to phosphorylated Rhodopsin and prevents this protein from activating transducin. Transducin is a typical heterotrimeric G protein, composed of alpha and beta gamma subunits. Rhodopsin phosphorylation is mediated by Rhodopsin kinase (a.k.a. GRK1), the prototypic member of a family of GPCR kinases. Since the S-antigen protein arrested the activity of Rhodopsin it was renamed S-arrestin, and became the prototypic member of the arrestin protein family. Subsequently, Robert Lefkowitz and colleagues discovered a related protein which bound to phosphorylated beta-adrenergic GPCRs and prevented these proteins from activating their specific heterotrimeric G proteins. Because of this relationship to the beta-adrenergic receptor and functional and structural similarities to S-arrestin this protein was named beta-arrestin. The beta-adrenergic receptor was phosphorylated by the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (a.k.a. GRK2), an enzyme belonging to GPCR kinase family. Studies of visual transduction therefore aided greatly in understanding other kinds of GPCR signaling. In mammals, there are four arrestin isoforms; S-arrestin (a.k.a. S-antigen, visual arrestin and arrestin-1) and cone arrestin (a.k.a. arrestin-4) are largely confined to photoreceptors. Beta-arrestin 1 (a.k.a. arrestin 2) and beta-arrestin-2 (a.k.a. arrestin-3) are ubiquitous and regulate non-visual GPCRs.

Limitations

This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.

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Product General Protocols

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Video Protocols

WB Video Protocol
ICC/IF Video Protocol

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Secondary Antibodies

 

Isotype Controls

Other Available Formats

Alexa Fluor 405 NBP2-25161AF405
Alexa Fluor 488 NBP2-25161AF488
Alexa Fluor 647 NBP2-25161AF647
Alexa Fluor 700 NBP2-25161AF700
Biotin NBP2-25161B
DyLight 350 NBP2-25161UV
DyLight 405 NBP2-25161V
DyLight 488 NBP2-25161G
DyLight 550 NBP2-25161R
DyLight 650 NBP2-25161C
DyLight 680 NBP2-25161FR
DyLight 755 NBP2-25161IR
FITC NBP2-25161F
HRP NBP2-25161H
Janelia Fluor 549 NBP2-25161JF549
Janelia Fluor 646 NBP2-25161JF646

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Blogs on S-arrestin.

"Freeze!" - Arrestin Antibodies Used in New Serotonin Syndrome Study
The beta-arrestin family regulate receptor binding of G-proteins, a group of seven transmembrane receptor proteins which includes the adrenergic, dopamine and serotonin receptors. Recently, arrestin antibodies were used in a study into Serotonin Syndr...  Read full blog post.

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Bioinformatics

Gene Symbol SAG
Entrez
OMIM
Uniprot