Recombinant Human R-Spondin 1 Protein


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Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity

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Recombinant Human R-Spondin 1 Protein Summary

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Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to induce Topflash reporter activity in HEK293T human embryonic kidney cells. The ED50 for this effect is 1-10 ng/mL in the presence of 5 ng/mL Recombinant Mouse Wnt‑3a (Catalog # 1324-WN).
Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived human R-Spondin 1 protein
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Ser21 & Arg31
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>90%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Note
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


Theoretical MW
25.6 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
39 kDa, reducing conditions
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4645-RS in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
>90%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human R-Spondin 1 Protein

  • Cristin 3
  • FLJ40906Roof plate-specific spondin-1
  • HRspo1
  • roof plate-specific spondin
  • RSPO
  • RSPO1
  • RSpondin 1
  • R-Spondin 1
  • R-spondin homolog (Xenopus laevis)
  • R-spondin1
  • R-spondin-1


R-Spondin 1 (RSPO1, Roof plate-specific Spondin 1), also known as cysteine-rich and single thrombospondin domain containing protein 3 (Cristin 3), is a 27 kDa secreted protein that shares ~40% amino acid (aa) identity with three other R-Spondin family members (1, 2). All R-Spondins regulate Wnt/ beta-Catenin signaling but have distinct expression patterns (1-3). R-Spondin 1 competes with the Wnt antagonist DKK-1 for binding to the Wnt co-receptors, Kremen and LRP-6, reducing their DKK-1-mediated internalization (4). However, reports are mixed on whether R-Spondin 1 binds LRP-6 directly (4-6). R-Spondin 1 is expressed in early development at the roof plate boundary and is thought to contribute to dorsal neural tube development (3, 7). In humans, rare disruptions of the R-Spondin 1 gene are associated with tendencies for XX sex reversal (phenotypic male) or hermaphroditism, indicating a role for R-Spondin 1 in gender-specific differentiation (7, 8). Mutations in R-Spondin 1 are also linked with palmoplantar keratoderma, abnormal thickening of the skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet (7, 8). Postnatally, R-Spondin 1 is expressed by neuroendocrine cells in the intestine, adrenal gland and pancreas, and by epithelia in kidney and prostate (9). Injection of recombinant R-Spondin 1 in mice causes activation of beta-catenin and proliferation of intestinal crypt epithelial cells, and ameliorates experimental colitis (9, 10). Interest in R-Spondin 1 as a cell culture supplement has grown with the expansion of the organoid field. R-Spondin 1 is widely used in organoid cell culture workflows as a vital component that promotes both growth and survival of 3D organoids (11).

Structurally similar to other R-Spondins, R-Spondin 1 contains two adjacent cysteine-rich furin-like domains (aa 34-135) with one potential N-glycosylation site, followed by a thrombospondin (TSP-1) motif (aa 147-207) and a region rich in basic residues (aa 211-263). Only the furin-like domains are needed for beta-catenin stabilization (2, 12). A putative nuclear localization signal at the C-terminus may allow some expression in the nucleus (13). Potential isoforms of 200 and 236 aa have an alternate, shorter N-terminus or are missing aa 146-208, respectively (14). Over aa 21-263, human R-Spondin 1 shares 89%, 87%, 92%, 91%, 91% and 89% aa identity with mouse, rat, horse, dog, goat, and cow RSPO-1, respectively.

  1. Chen, J-Z. et al. (2002) Mol. Biol. Rep. 29:287.
  2. Kim, K.-A. et al. (2006) Cell Cycle 5:23.
  3. Nam, J.-S. et al. (2007) Gene Expr. Patterns 7:306.
  4. Binnerts, M.E. et al. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:14700.
  5. Nam, J.-S. et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281:13247.
  6. Wei, Q. et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282:15903.
  7. Kamata, T. et al. (2004) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1676:51.
  8. Parma, P. et al. (2006) Nat. Genet. 38:1304.
  9. Kim, K.-A. et al. (2005) Science 309:1256.
  10. Zhao, J. et al. (2007) Gastroenterology 132:1331.
  11. Drost and Clevers. (2018) Nature Reviews Cancer 18:407.
  12. Kazanskaya, O. et al. (2004) Dev. Cell 7:525.
  13. Tomaselli, S. et al. (2008) Hum. Mutat. 29:220.
  14. UniProt # Q2MKA7.

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Publications for R-Spondin 1 (4645-RS)(57)

We have publications tested in 4 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Avian - Chicken.

We have publications tested in 4 applications: Bioassay, Cell Culture, IHC Control, Tissue Culture.

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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 57. Show All 57 Publications.
Publications using 4645-RS Applications Species
SI Mae, M Ryosaka, S Sakamoto, K Matsuse, A Nozaki, M Igami, R Kabai, A Watanabe, K Osafune Expansion of Human iPSC-Derived Ureteric Bud Organoids with Repeated Branching Potential Cell Rep, 2020;32(4):107963. 2020 [PMID: 32726627] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Y Nanki, T Chiyoda, A Hirasawa, A Ookubo, M Itoh, M Ueno, T Akahane, K Kameyama, W Yamagami, F Kataoka, D Aoki Patient-derived ovarian cancer organoids capture the genomic profiles of primary tumours applicable for drug sensitivity and resistance testing Sci Rep, 2020;10(1):12581. 2020 [PMID: 32724113] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
S Yoshida, H Miwa, T Kawachi, S Kume, K Takahashi Generation of intestinal organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells for drug testing Sci Rep, 2020;10(1):5989. 2020 [PMID: 32249832] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
M Zhang, M Haughey, NY Wang, K Blease, AM Kapoun, S Couto, I Belka, T Hoey, M Groza, J Hartke, B Bennett, J Cain, A Gurney, B Benish, P Castiglion, C Drew, J Lachowicz, L Carayannop, SD Nathan, J Distler, DA Brenner, K Hariharan, H Cho, W Xie Targeting the Wnt signaling pathway through R-spondin 3 identifies an anti-fibrosis treatment strategy for multiple organs PLoS ONE, 2020;15(3):e0229445. 2020 [PMID: 32160239] (IHC Control, Human) IHC Control Human
M Dossena, R Piras, A Cherubini, M Barilani, E Dugnani, F Salanitro, T Moreth, F Pampaloni, L Piemonti, L Lazzari Standardized GMP-compliant scalable production of human pancreas organoids Stem Cell Res Ther, 2020;11(1):94. 2020 [PMID: 32127043] (Tissue Culture, Human) Tissue Culture Human
NJ Hogrebe, P Augsornwor, KG Maxwell, L Velazco-Cr, JR Millman Targeting the cytoskeleton to direct pancreatic differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells Nat. Biotechnol., 2020;0(0):. 2020 [PMID: 32094658] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
Y Wang, L Lifshitz, K Gellatly, CL Vinton, K Busman-Sah, S McCauley, P Vangala, K Kim, A Derr, S Jaiswal, A Kucukural, P McDonel, PW Hunt, T Greenough, J Houghton, M Somsouk, JD Estes, JM Brenchley, M Garber, SG Deeks, J Luban HIV-1-induced cytokines deplete homeostatic innate lymphoid cells and expand TCF7-dependent memory NK cells Nat. Immunol., 2020;21(3):274-286. 2020 [PMID: 32066947] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
G Levin, BAA Koga, GG Belchior, ACO Carreira, MC Sogayar Production, purification and characterization of recombinant human R-spondin1 (RSPO1) protein stably expressed in human HEK293 cells BMC Biotechnol., 2020;20(1):5. 2020 [PMID: 31959207] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
SM Syed, M Kumar, A Ghosh, F Tomasetig, A Ali, RM Whan, D Alterman, PS Tanwar Endometrial Axin2+ Cells Drive Epithelial Homeostasis, Regeneration, and Cancer following Oncogenic Transformation Cell Stem Cell, 2019;26(1):64-80.e13. 2019 [PMID: 31883834] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
PG Boone, LK Rochelle, JD Ginzel, V Lubkov, WL Roberts, PJ Nicholls, C Bock, ML Flowers, RJ von Furste, BR Stripp, P Agarwal, AD Borowsky, RD Cardiff, LS Barak, MG Caron, HK Lyerly, JC Snyder A cancer rainbow mouse for visualizing the functional genomics of oncogenic clonal expansion Nat Commun, 2019;10(1):5490. 2019 [PMID: 31792216] (Cell Culture, Mouse) Cell Culture Mouse
Show All 57 Publications.

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Gene Symbol RSPO1