Recombinant Human Lymphotoxin alpha1/beta2 Protein, CF


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Applications Bioactivity

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Recombinant Human Lymphotoxin alpha1/beta2 Protein, CF Summary

Additional Information
Defined heterotrimer stoichiometry
Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to induce IL-8 secretion by A375 human melanoma cells. The ED50 for this effect is 3-15 ng/mL.
Human embryonic kidney cell, HEK293-derived human Lymphotoxin protein
rhLT alpha
Accession # P01374
GGGGS rhLT beta
Accession # Q06643
GGGGS rhLT beta
Accession # Q06643
N-terminus C-terminus
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Structure / Form
GS-linked heterotrimer
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Note
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


  • Bioactivity
Theoretical MW
61 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
65-76 kDa, reducing conditions
Read Publications using
8884-LY/CF in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in sterile PBS.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human Lymphotoxin alpha1/beta2 Protein, CF

  • LT
  • Lymphotoxin alpha
  • Lymphotoxin
  • tnfb
  • TNFSF1
  • TNLG1E


Lymphotoxin alpha (LT-alpha ), and Lymphotoxin beta (LT-beta ) are pro-inflammatory TNF superfamily ligands that play important roles in immune system development (1, 2). The 25 kDa mature human LT-alpha is a secreted protein that shares 75% amino acid (aa) sequence identity with mouse and rat LT-alpha (3, 4). The 33 kDa mature human LT-beta is a type II transmembrane protein that shares 73% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat LT-beta within common regions of their extracellular domains (5). Relative to the human protein, mouse and rat LT-beta have a 66 aa or 65 aa insertion within the ECD, respectively. LT-alpha can be secreted as a homotrimer that binds and activates TNF RI/TNFRSF1A, TNF RII/TNFRSF1B, HVEM/TNFRSF14, and Troy/TNFRSF19 (6-8). LT-alpha is required for development of the spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer’s patches (9). It also regulates T cell homing to the gut and IgA induction (10). In addition, LT-alpha can form membrane-associated heterotrimers with two copies of LT-beta on the surface of B, T, LTi, and ILC3 cells (2, 5, 11). The Lymphotoxin alpha 1/ beta 2 heterotrimer binds and activates the Lymphotoxin beta R/TNFRSF3 (LT beta R) which is expressed on macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), follicular dendritic cells (FDC), and high endothelial venules (HEV) (2, 12, 13). LT beta R also serves as a receptor for LIGHT/TNFSF14 (14). LT-alpha 1/ beta 2 promotes the development of FDC networks and HEV in lymphoid tissue, the class switching of immature B cells for IgA production, and the production of IL-22 by ILCs (10, 15-17). It can be shed by ADAM17 or MMP-8 mediated cleavage, and the released heterotrimer circulates in the serum and is elevated in synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients (18).
  1. Lu, T.T. and J.L. Browning (2014) Front. Immunol. 5:47.
  2. Upadhyay, V. and Y.-X. Fu (2014) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 25:227.
  3. Gray, P.W. et al. (1984) Nature 312:721.
  4. Nedwin, G.E. et al. (1985) J. Cell Biochem. 29:171.
  5. Browning, J.L. et al. (1993) Cell 72:847.
  6. Schoenfeld, H.J. et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266:3863.
  7. Mauri, D.N. et al. (1998) Immunity 8:21.
  8. Hashimoto, T. et al. (2008) Cell Cycle 7:106.
  9. De Togni, P. et al. (1994) Science 264:703.
  10. Kruglov, A.A. et al. (2013) Science 342:1243.
  11. Androlewicz, M.J. et al. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267:2542.
  12. Sudhamsu, J. et al. (2013) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110:19896.
  13. Crowe, P.D. et al. (1994) Science 264:707.
  14. Eldredge, J. et al. (2006) Biochemistry 45:10117.
  15. Futterer, A. et al. (1998) Immunity 9:59.
  16. Koni, P.A. et al. (1997) Immunity 6:491.
  17. Ota, N. et al. (2011) Nat. Immunol. 12:941.
  18. Young, J. et al. (2010) Cytokine 51:78.

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Publications for Lymphotoxin (8884-LY/CF)(6)

We have publications tested in 2 confirmed species: Human, Mouse.

We have publications tested in 4 applications: Bioassay, Cell Culture, Stimulation, Western Blot.

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Western Blot
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Showing Publications 1 - 6 of 6.
Publications using 8884-LY/CF Applications Species
M Maksymowic, M Mi?czy?ska, M Banach-Or? Clathrin- and dynamin-dependent endocytosis limits canonical NF-&amp;kappaB signaling triggered by lymphotoxin &amp;beta receptor Cell Commun Signal, 2020;18(1):176. 2020 [PMID: 33148272] (Western Blot, Human) Western Blot Human
R da Silva A, AK Mehta, L Madge, J Tocker, M Croft TNFSF14 (LIGHT) Exhibits Inflammatory Activities in Lung Fibroblasts Complementary to IL-13 and TGF-β Front Immunol, 2018;9(0):576. 2018 [PMID: 29616048] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
JS Hähnlein, R Nadafi, T de Jong, TH Ramwadhdoe, JF Semmelink, KI Maijer, IA Zijlstra, M Maas, DM Gerlag, TBH Geijtenbee, PP Tak, RE Mebius, LGM van Baarse Impaired lymph node stromal cell function during the earliest phases of rheumatoid arthritis Arthritis Res. Ther., 2018;20(1):35. 2018 [PMID: 29482663] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
T Kanaya, S Sakakibara, T Jinnohara, M Hachisuka, N Tachibana, S Hidano, T Kobayashi, S Kimura, T Iwanaga, T Nakagawa, T Katsuno, N Kato, T Akiyama, T Sato, IR Williams, H Ohno Development of intestinal M cells and follicle-associated epithelium is regulated by TRAF6-mediated NF-?B signaling J. Exp. Med., 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29339448] (Stimulation, Mouse) Stimulation Mouse
HT Quach, T Kondo, M Watanabe, R Tamura, Y Yajima, S Sayama, M Ando, T Kataoka Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpene Lactones Inhibit Nuclear Translocation of the Nuclear Factor ?B Subunit RelB in Response to a Lymphotoxin ? Stimulation Biol. Pharm. Bull., 2017;40(10):1669-1677. 2017 [PMID: 28966239] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Bimodal Expansion of the Lymphatic Vessels Is Regulated by the Sequential Expression of IL-7 and Lymphotoxin ?1?2 in Newly Formed Tertiary Lymphoid Structures J Immunol, 2016;0(0):. 2016 [PMID: 27474071] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human

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