Recombinant Human Gremlin Protein, CF


Recombinant Human Gremlin (Catalog # 5190‑GR) inhibits BMP-4-induced alkaline phosphatase production in the MC3T3-E1 mouse preosteoblast cell line. The ED50 for this effect is 0.025‑0.15 µg/mL in the more
1 µg/lane of Recombinant Human Gremlin was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing major bands at 25‑30 kDa. Multiple bands in gel are due to variable more

Product Details

Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity

Order Details

Recombinant Human Gremlin Protein, CF Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to inhibit alkaline phosphatase production by MC3T3‑E1 mouse preosteoblast cells. The ED50 for this effect is 0.025-0.15 μg/mL in the presence of 30 ng/mL of Recombinant Human BMP‑4 (Catalog # 314-BP).
Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived human Gremlin protein
Lys25-Asp184, with a C-terminal 10-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Structure / Form
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>90%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Note
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


  • Bioactivity
Theoretical MW
19.7 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
25-30 kDa, under reducing conditions
Read Publications using
5190-GR in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS and EDTA.
>90%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 200 μg/mL in sterile PBS.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human Gremlin Protein, CF

  • Cell proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein
  • CKTSF1B1gremlin 1, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog
  • Cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1gremlin 1, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog (Xenopus laevis)
  • DAN domain family member 2
  • DAND2
  • Down-regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein
  • DRM
  • DRMMGC126660
  • GREM1
  • gremlin 1
  • gremlin 1-like protein
  • Gremlin
  • gremlin-1
  • IHG-2
  • Increased in high glucose protein 2
  • increased in high glucose-2
  • proliferation-inducing gene 2


Gremlin, also known as Increased in High Glucose protein 2 (IHG-2) and Down-regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein (Drm), is a 28 kDa member of the Dan family of secreted glycoproteins (1-3). Human Gremlin is synthesized as a 184 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 24 aa signal sequence and a 160 aa mature region (SwissProt # O60565). The mature region contains one potential site for N-linked glycosylation (Asn 42), a cysteine-rich region, and a cysteine-knot motif (aa 94‑184) whose structure is shared by members of the TGF-beta superfamily (3). Post-translational modifications include glycosylation and phosphorylation (3). Gremlin exists in both secreted and membrane-associated forms (3). There are two isoforms for human Gremlin. Isoform 1 is the standard protein, and in isoform 2, there is a deletion of aa 39‑79. Human Gremlin shares 99% and 86% aa sequence identity with mouse and chick Gremlin, respectively. Northern blot analysis shows that Gremlin mRNA is highly expressed in the small intestine, fetal brain and colon, and weakly expressed in adult brain, ovary, prostate, pancreas and skeletal muscle (4). Gremlin functions as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist. It acts by binding to, and forming heterodimers with, BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7, thus preventing them from interacting with their cell surface receptors (1). This mechanism is thought to be responsible for the pattern-inducing activity of Gremlin during embryonic development (5) and to play a role in human diseases, such as diabetic nephropathy (6). However, intracellular BMP-independent mechanisms of action (7) may mediate the ability of Gremlin to suppress transformation and tumorigenesis under certain experimental conditions (8-9). Gremlin also interacts with Slit proteins and acts as an inhibitor of monocyte chemotaxis (10). In addition, Gremlin has been found to be a proangiogenic factor expressed by endothelium (9).

  1. Hsu, D.R. et al. (1998) Mol. Cell 1:673.
  2. McMahon, R. et al. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275:9901.
  3. Wordinger, R.J. et al. (2008) Exp. Eye Res. 87:78.
  4. Topol, L.Z. et al. (2000) Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 89:79.
  5. Khokha, M.K. et al. (2003) Nat. Genet. 34:303.
  6. Lappin, D.W. et al. (2002) Nephrol. Dial. Transplant 17:65.
  7. Chen, B. et al. (2002) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 295:1135.
  8. Topol, L.Z. et al. (1997) Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:4801.
  9. Stabile, H. et al. (2007) Blood 109:1834.
  10. Chen, B. et al. (2004) J. Immunol. 173:5914.

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Publications for Gremlin 1 (5190-GR)(17)

We have publications tested in 3 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Chicken.

We have publications tested in 5 applications: Bioassay, Cell Culture, Flow Cytometry, In Vivo, Surface Plasmon Resonance.

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Flow Cytometry
In Vivo
Surface Plasmon Resonance
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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 17. Show All 17 Publications.
Publications using 5190-GR Applications Species
MH Shihan, SG Novo, Y Wang, D Sheppard, A Atakilit, TD Arnold, NM Rossi, AP Faranda, MK Duncan alphaVbeta8 integrin targeting to prevent posterior capsular opacification (PCO) JCI Insight, 2021-11-08;0(0):. 2021-11-08 [PMID: 34554928] (In Vivo, Mouse) In Vivo Mouse
NJ Sung, NH Kim, YJ Surh, SA Park Gremlin-1 Promotes Metastasis of Breast Cancer Cells by Activating STAT3-MMP13 Signaling Pathway International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2020-12-03;21(23):. 2020-12-03 [PMID: 33287358] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
SA Park, NJ Sung, BJ Choi, W Kim, SH Kim, YJ Surh Gremlin-1 augments the oestrogen-related receptor alpha signalling through EGFR activation: implications for the progression of breast cancer Br. J. Cancer, 2020-06-23;0(0):. 2020-06-23 [PMID: 32572171] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
NJ Sung, NH Kim, NY Bae, HS Jo, SA Park DHA inhibits Gremlin-1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via ERK suppression in human breast cancer cells Biosci. Rep., 2020-03-27;40(3):. 2020-03-27 [PMID: 32141512] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
S Schivo, S Khurana, K Govindaraj, J Scholma, J Kerkhofs, L Zhong, X Huang, J van de Pol, R Langerak, AJ van Wijnen, L Geris, M Karperien, JN Post ECHO, the executable CHOndrocyte: A computational model to study articular chondrocytes in healthy and disease Cell. Signal., 2019-12-11;0(0):109471. 2019-12-11 [PMID: 31837466] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
LR Dutton, CL O' Neill, RJ Medina, DP Brazil No evidence of Gremlin1-mediated activation of VEGFR2 signalling in endothelial cells J. Biol. Chem., 2019-10-11;0(0):. 2019-10-11 [PMID: 31604823] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
V Veschi, LR Mangiapane, A Nicotra, S Di Franco, E Scavo, T Apuzzo, DS Sardina, M Fiori, A Benfante, ML Colorito, G Cocorullo, F Giuliante, C Cipolla, G Pistone, MR Bongiorno, A Rizzo, CM Tate, X Wu, S Rowlinson, LF Stancato, M Todaro, R De Maria, G Stassi Targeting chemoresistant colorectal cancer via systemic administration of a BMP7 variant Oncogene, 2019-10-07;0(0):. 2019-10-07 [PMID: 31591478] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
J Ren, M Smid, J Iaria, DCF Salvatori, H van Dam, HJ Zhu, JWM Martens, P Ten Dijke Cancer-associated fibroblast-derived Gremlin 1 promotes breast cancer progression Breast Cancer Res., 2019-09-18;21(1):109. 2019-09-18 [PMID: 31533776] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
M Urbischek, H Rannikmae, T Foets, K Ravn, M Hyvönen, M de la Roch Organoid culture media formulated with growth factors of defined cellular activity Sci Rep, 2019-04-17;9(1):6193. 2019-04-17 [PMID: 30996238] (Bioassay, Human, Mouse) Bioassay Human, Mouse
Q Li, Y Huo, Y Guo, X Zheng, W Sun, Z Hao Generation and Applications of a DNA Aptamer against Gremlin-1 Molecules, 2017-04-28;22(5):. 2017-04-28 [PMID: 28452949] (Bioassay) Bioassay
Show All 17 Publications.

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Gene Symbol GREM1