Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (KRT/457) [Alexa Fluor® 750]

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Product Details

Summary
Reactivity Hu, Mu, Rt, Po, Am, Bv, Gp, Gt, PmSpecies Glossary
Applications WB, Flow, IHC, IHC-P, ICC/IF
Clone
KRT/457
Clonality
Monoclonal
Host
Mouse
Conjugate
Alexa Fluor 750

Order Details

Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (KRT/457) [Alexa Fluor® 750] Summary

Immunogen
This Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (KRT/457) was developed against keratin-enriched preparation from cultured human epithelial cells
Localization
Cytoplasmic
Marker
Epithelial Marker
Specificity
Twenty human keratins are resolved with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis into acidic (pI 6.0) subfamilies. This antibody recognizes acidic (Type I or LMW) and basic (Type II or HMW) cytokeratins, including 59 kDa (CK4); 58kDa (CK5); 56 kDa (CK6); 52 kDa (CK8); 56.5 kDa (CK10); 53 kDa (CK13) and 45 kDa (CK18). This is a broad-spectrum antibody, which has been reported to differentiate epithelial tumors from non-epithelial tumors. Many studies have shown the usefulness of keratins as markers in cancer research and tumor diagnosis.
Isotype
IgG1
Clonality
Monoclonal
Host
Mouse
Gene
KRT
Purity
Protein A or G purified
Innovator's Reward
Test in a species/application not listed above to receive a full credit towards a future purchase.

Applications/Dilutions

Dilutions
  • Western Blot
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin
  • Immunofluorescence
Application Notes
Optimal dilution of this antibody should be experimentally determined.

Reactivity Notes

Human, Monkey, Cow, Pig, Goat, Rat, Mouse, Guinea pig, Frog. Others not known.

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Store at 4C in the dark.
Buffer
50mM Sodium Borate
Preservative
0.05% Sodium Azide
Purity
Protein A or G purified

Notes



Alexa Fluor (R) products are provided under an intellectual property license from Life Technologies Corporation. The purchase of this product conveys to the buyer the non-transferable right to use the purchased product and components of the product only in research conducted by the buyer (whether the buyer is an academic or for-profit entity). The sale of this product is expressly conditioned on the buyer not using the product or its components, or any materials made using the product or its components, in any activity to generate revenue, which may include, but is not limited to use of the product or its components: (i) in manufacturing; (ii) to provide a service, information, or data in return for payment; (iii) for therapeutic, diagnostic or prophylactic purposes; or (iv) for resale, regardless of whether they are resold for use in research. For information on purchasing a license to this product for purposes other than as described above, contact Life Technologies Corporation, 5791 Van Allen Way, Carlsbad, CA 92008 USA or outlicensing@lifetech.com. This conjugate is made on demand. Actual recovery may vary from the stated volume of this product. The volume will be greater than or equal to the unit size stated on the datasheet.

Background

Cytokeratins are a family of intermediate filamentous proteins that are expressed by epithelial cells (1,2). Cytokeratins range in size with a theoretic molecular weight varying from approximately 40 kDa to 68 kDa (2,3). The cytokeratin family consists of 20 polypeptides that are further divided into two main groups based on isoelectric point and molecular weight (1-3). The type I group are smaller, acidic polypeptides designated as cytokeratin 9 through cytokeratin 20 (CK9 - CK20) (1-4). Conversely, CK1 - CK8 belong to the type II group, classified as larger, basic or neutral polypeptides (1-4). Structurally, cytokeratins have homologous basic structure with other intermediate filaments; they possess a 300-315 amino acid (aa) central helical region that consists of four conserved domains (1A, 2A, 1B, and 2B) which are separated by linker domains (L1, L12, and L2) (1,5). Additionally, flanking this central region, both the amino- and carboxyl-terminal ends have a homologous subdomain (H), a variable domain (V), and charged end subdomains (E) (1). Furthermore, the central rod of one cytokeratin monomer binds with another monomer to form a coiled-coil dimer which subsequently binds another dimer to form a tertramer (3). Finally, many tetramers join together to ultimately form an intermediate filament of approximately 10nm in diameter (1-3, 5). Cytokeratins are expressed as pairs, typically with a type I and type II member; for example, CK10 pairs with CK1 (1,3).

Epithelial cells express multiple subtypes of cytokeratins which can be used to classify epithelial cell type or differentiation status, as well tumor progression or diagnosis (2). Cytokeratins are important for both stability and integrity of epithelial cells and function in intracellular signaling, from wound healing to apoptosis (1). Cytokeratins are useful immunohistochemistry tumor markers and antibodies to cytokeratins are a common pathological tool (1,3,6). Cytokeratin pan antibody is an antibody cocktail mixture that can detect multiple cytokeratins and reacts to multiple epithelial tissues (1,3,6). For example, AE-1/AE-3 is a commonly used specific pan cytokeratin that detects cytokeratins 1-8, 10, 14-16 and 19 (1,3,6).

Given the role of cytokeratins in the structural integrity of epithelial cells, mutations in cytokeratins have been shown to play a role in a variety of human diseases including epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) (4,5). EBS is an autosomal dominant disorder that is caused by missense mutations in either CK5 or CK14 (5). Other known cytokeratin-related disorders include bullous ichthyosis, a skin disorder characterized by redness, blistering, and hyperkeratosis, and epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK), which results in hyperkeratosis on the palms and soles of the body (7).

References

1. Awasthi, P., Thahriani, A., Bhattacharya, A., Awasthi, P., & Keratins, B. A. (2016). Keratins or cytokeratins: a review article. Journal of Advanced Medical and Dental Sciences Research. https://10.21276/jamdsr.2016.4.4.30

2. Southgate, J., Harnden, P., & Trejdosiewicz, L. K. (1999). Cytokeratin expression patterns in normal and malignant urothelium: a review of the biological and diagnostic implications. Histology and histopathology. https://doi.org/10.14670/HH-14.657

3. Belaldavar, C., Mane, D. R., Hallikerimath, S., Kale, A. D. (2016). Cytokeratins: Its role and expression profile in oral health and disease. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajoms.2015.08.001.

4. Linder S. (2007). Cytokeratin markers come of age. Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1159/000107582

5. Jacob, J. T., Coulombe, P. A., Kwan, R., & Omary, M. B. (2018). Types I and II Keratin Intermediate Filaments. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology. https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a018275

6. Ordonez N. G. (2013). Broad-spectrum immunohistochemical epithelial markers: a review. Human pathology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2012.11.016

7. McLean, W. H., & Moore, C. B. (2011). Keratin disorders: from gene to therapy. Human molecular genetics. https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddr379

Limitations

This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.

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Secondary Antibodies

 

Isotype Controls

Other Available Formats

Alexa Fluor 350 NBP2-47669AF350
Alexa Fluor 405 NBP2-47669AF405
Alexa Fluor 488 NBP2-47669AF488
Alexa Fluor 532 NBP2-47669AF532
Alexa Fluor 594 NBP2-47669AF594
Alexa Fluor 647 NBP2-47669AF647
Alexa Fluor 700 NBP2-47669AF700
Alexa Fluor 750 NBP2-47669AF750
Allophycocyanin NBP2-47669APC
Biotin NBP2-47669B
DyLight 350 NBP2-47669UV
DyLight 405 NBP2-47669V
DyLight 488 NBP2-47669G
DyLight 550 NBP2-47669R
DyLight 594 NBP2-47669DL594
DyLight 650 NBP2-47669C
DyLight 680 NBP2-47669FR
DyLight 755 NBP2-47669IR
FITC NBP2-47669F
HRP NBP2-47669H
Janelia Fluor 549 NBP2-47669JF549
Janelia Fluor 646 NBP2-47669JF646
PE NBP2-47669PE
PerCP NBP2-47669PCP

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Bioinformatics

Gene Symbol KRT