Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE1 + AE3)


Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: pan Cytokeratin Antibody (AE1 + AE3) [NBP2-29429] - Analysis using Azide and BSA Free version of NBP2-29429. Human Colon Carcinoma stained with pan Cytokeratin Monoclonal Antibody cocktail more
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: pan Cytokeratin Antibody (AE1 + AE3) [NBP2-29429] - Pan Cytokeratin was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human liver cancer tissue using 1.7 ug/mL of mouse more
Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: pan Cytokeratin Antibody (AE1 + AE3) [NBP2-29429] - MCF-7 cells stained with Biotin conjugated version of pan Cytokeratin antibody and SAv-A488. A) SAv-A488 only at a dilution of more
Flow Cytometry: pan Cytokeratin Antibody (AE1 + AE3) [NBP2-29429] - Using the PE direct conjugate An intracellular stain was performed on HT-29 cells with pan Cytokeratin (AE1 + AE3) antibody NBP2-33200PE (blue) and a more
Flow (Intracellular): pan Cytokeratin Antibody (AE1 + AE3) [NBP2-29429] - An intracellular stain was performed on HeLa cells with pan Cytokeratin Antibody (AE1 + AE3) NBP2-33200PE (blue) and a matched isotype control more
Flow Cytometry: pan Cytokeratin Antibody (AE1 + AE3) [NBP2-29429] - Human Pan-Cytokeratins on HeLa Cells. Black: Cells alone; Green: Isotype Control; Red: PE-labeled Pan-Cytokeratin Monoclonal Antibody (AE-1/AE-3)
Flow Cytometry: pan Cytokeratin Antibody (AE1 + AE3) [NBP2-29429] - Analysis using Azide and BSA Free version of NBP2-29429. Black: Cells alone; Green: Isotype Control; Red: PE-labeled Pan-Cytokeratin Monoclonal more
Flow (Intracellular): pan Cytokeratin Antibody (AE1 + AE3) [NBP2-29429] - An intracellular stain was performed on HeLa cells with pan Cytokeratin Antibody (AE1 + AE3) NBP2-33200AF647 (blue) and a matched isotype control more

Product Details

Reactivity Hu, Mu, Rt, Bv, Ca, Ch, Pm, RbSpecies Glossary
Applications WB, Flow, Flow-IC, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, Single Cell Western
AE1 + AE3
0.2 mg/ml

Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE1 + AE3) Summary

Total keratin isolated from human epidermal callus was used as immunogen to generate the pan cytokeratin antibodies AE1 + AE3 (Woodcock-Mitchell, 1982).
Epithelial marker
Twenty human keratins are resolved with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis into acidic (pI <5.7) and basic (pI >6.0) subfamilies. This antibody cocktail recognizes acidic (Type I or LMW) and basic (Type II or HMW) cytokeratins, which include CK1, CK3, CK4, CK5, CK6, CK8, CK10, CK14, CK15, CK16, and CK19. Many studies have shown the usefulness of keratins as markers in cancer research and tumor diagnosis. AE-1/AE-3 is a broad spectrum anti pan-cytokeratin antibody cocktail, which differentiates epithelial tumors from non-epithelial tumors e.g. squamous vs. adenocarcinoma of the lung, liver carcinoma, breast cancer, and esophageal cancer. It has been used to characterize the source of various neoplasms and to study the distribution of cytokeratin containing cells in epithelia during normal development and during the development of epithelial neoplasms. This antibody stains cytokeratins present in normal and abnormal human tissues and has shown high sensitivity in the recognition of epithelial cells and carcinomas.
IgG1 Kappa
Protein A or G purified
Innovator's Reward
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  • Western Blot 0.5-1ug/ml
  • Flow Cytometry 0.5-1ug/million cells
  • Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence 1-2ug/ml
  • Immunohistochemistry-Frozen 0.5-1.0ug/ml
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin 0.5-1.0ug/ml
  • Flow (Intracellular)
  • Single Cell Western 1:10
Application Notes
Mol. Weight of Antigen: 40 - 67 kDa
1. The staining pattern of the pan cytokeratin antibody cocktail may be different than that of either antibody separately.
2. The pan cytokeratin cocktail does not react with keratin18, which is also expressed in carcinomas. As such, negative staining with NBP2-29429 in of itself may not be sufficient evidence to rule out the possibility of a carcinoma (Ordonez, 2013).
a. For example, hepatocellular, adrenal cortical, clear cell renal and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas have been reported to be negative for the pan cytokeratin antibody. In this regard, the pan cytokeratin antibody can be used as part of a screening panel to more extensively define the tumor cell lineages.
3. The pan cytokeratin antibody may cross-react with GFAP, leading to aberrant positive staining of glial tumors such as ependymoma, glioblastoma, or schwannoma (Ordonez, 2013).
Read Publications using
NBP2-29429 in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Store at 4C.
10mM PBS and 0.05% BSA
0.05% Sodium Azide
0.2 mg/ml
Protein A or G purified


Keratin/cytokeratin AE1 + AE3 is a pan cytokeratin (also known as pan keratin) antibody cocktail that detects cytokeratins 1-8, 10, 14-16 and 19 (reviewed in Ordonez, 2013). The cocktail is an optimized mixture of two different monoclonal antibody clones, AE1 and AE3. Each clone detects a subset of high and low molecular weight cytokeratins: AE1 detects 10, 14-16, and 19; AE3 detects 1-8. A key advantage of the pan cytokeratin antibody cocktail stain is that a broader spectrum of cytokeratins can be detected compared to using each clone alone.
The pan cytokeratin antibody cocktail is a well known broad spectrum immunohistochemical epithelial marker for screening for epithelial differentiation in tumors and their metastases. Most carcinomas have been reported to stain positive, and the antibody can help confirm or rule out the epithelial nature of a poorly differentiated tumor. Positive pan cytokeratin staining with the antibody in the lymph node (Nikura, 2007) or bone marrow ((Berg, 2007) can be an indication of metastatic carcinoma. The pan cytokeratin antibody has also been used to identify residual tumor post-treatment (Azumi, 2006), assess the depth of cancerous invasion (Alexander-Sefre, 2004) and predict survival outcome (Wiedswang, 2004).
Negative pan cytokeratin staining patterns can suggest non-epithelial components associated with a carcinoma. For example, ductal lavage foam cells from breast carcinoma patients did not stain with the antibody (Krishnamurthy, 2002). Foam cells are apparently of macrophage origin and hence pan cytokeratin cocktail negative.
The pan cytokeratin antibody staining patterns have been extensively documented in epithelium and numerous tumor types, dating back to 1982 (Woodcock-Mitchell) when the clones were first developed. As such, researchers are encouraged to survey the published literature for additional information about pan cytokeratin positive and negative staining tumors as well as in normal tissue.


This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.

Publications for pan Cytokeratin Antibody (NBP2-29429)(10)

We have publications tested in 2 confirmed species: Human, Lizards.

We have publications tested in 4 applications: ICC, ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB.

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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 10.
Publications using NBP2-29429 Applications Species
Cho CJ, Kang HJ, Ryu YM et al. Poor prognosis in Epstein-Barr virus-negative gastric cancer with lymphoid stroma is associated with immune phenotype. Gastric Cancer Apr 7 2018 [PMID: 29627937] (Human) Human
Ordonez NG. Broad-spectrum immunohistochemical epithelial markers: a review. Hum Pathol. 2013 Jul [PMID: 23427873] (IHC-P)

IHC (P): Table 1
Niikura H, Okamoto S, Yoshinaga K et al. Detection of micrometastases in the sentinel lymph nodes of patients with endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2007 Jun [PMID: 17442382] (IHC-P)

IHC (paraffin): Fig 1 & Table 2 (lymph nodes from endometrial cancer and other patients).
Berg A, Berner A, Lilleby W et al. Impact of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow at diagnosis in patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer treated by definitive radiotherapy. Int J Cancer. 2007 Apr 15 [PMID: 17230512] (ICC/IF)

ICC: Figs 1-3, Tables II-IV (bone marrow cytospins from prostate cancer patients).
Azumi M, Saga Y, Hashimoto H et al. [Histological investigation of prostate cancer treated with hormonal agents]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2006 Oct [PMID: 17131867]

Prostate specimens, see publication for details.
Wiedswang G, Borgen E, Karesen R et al. Isolated tumor cells in bone marrow three years after diagnosis in disease-free breast cancer patients predict unfavorable clinical outcome. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Aug 15 [PMID: 15328170]

ICC: Tables 1-4, Figs 1-3 (bone marrow cytospins). The Cytokeratin AE1/AE3 antibody was used to identify isolated tumor cells in bone marrow.
Alexander-Sefre F, Singh N, Ayhan A et al. Assessment of the depth of myometrial invasion in stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer using pancytokeratin immunohistochemistry. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004 Jul-Aug [PMID: 15304163] (IHC-P)

IHC (paraffin): Figs 2-5, Table I (endometrial cancer).
Krishnamurthy S, Sneige N, Ordonez NG et al. Characterization of foam cells in nipple aspirate fluid. Diagn Cytopathol. 2002 Nov [PMID: 12411988] (ICC)

ICC: Fig 2B (nipple aspirate fluid). The Cytokeratin AE1/AE3 antibody helped demonstrate, through negative staining, that the foam cells were not of epithelial origin.
Alibardi L, Maurizii M, Taddei C. Immunocytochemical and electrophoretic distribution of cytokeratins in the resting stage epidermis of the lizard Podarcis sicula. J Exp Zool. 2001 Jun 1 [PMID: 11351328] (WB, ICC/IF, Lizards)

Adult lizards: IF/ICC (Fig. 2), IHC [(acrylic resin) Fig 3], WB (Fig 4)
WB, ICC/IF Lizards
Woodcock-Mitchell J, Eichner R, Nelson WG et al. Immunolocalization of keratin polypeptides in human epidermis using monoclonal antibodies. J Cell Biol. 1982 Nov [PMID: 6183275] (WB, Human)

Hydridoma development of the AE1 and AE3 antibody clones, first clone specific publication: IF: Fig 1 (primary human epidermal cell cultures) WB: Fig 2 (human epidermal keratins, cytoskeletal proteins from human abdominal epidermis, human fibroblasts); Fig 3 (karains separated by 2D PAGE); Fig 7 (human heel epidermis) IHC (F): Figs 4-6 (human skin) Note: The specificity of the antibody clones were validated by WB using isolated keratins separated by 2D SDS-PAGE (Fig 2).
WB Human

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Product General Protocols

Video Protocols

WB Video Protocol
ICC/IF Video Protocol

FAQs for pan Cytokeratin Antibody (NBP2-29429). (Showing 1 - 1 of 1 FAQs).

  1. Could you tell us recommended antigen retrieval method for this antibody?-EndFragment-->
    • Staining of formalin-fixed tissues requires boiling tissue sections in 10mM citrate buffer, pH 6.0, for 10-20 min followed by cooling at RT for 20 minutes. Optimal dilution of antibody for IHC should be determined by the user. 

Secondary Antibodies


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Gene Symbol KRT1