Total keratin isolated from human epidermal callus was used as immunogen to generate the pan cytokeratin antibodies AE1 + AE3 (Woodcock-Mitchell, 1982).
Twenty human keratins are resolved with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis into acidic (pI <5.7) and basic (pI >6.0) subfamilies. This antibody cocktail recognizes acidic (Type I or LMW) and basic (Type II or HMW) cytokeratins, which include CK1, CK3, CK4, CK5, CK6, CK8, CK10, CK14, CK15, CK16, and CK19. Many studies have shown the usefulness of keratins as markers in cancer research and tumor diagnosis. AE-1/AE-3 is a broad spectrum anti pan-cytokeratin antibody cocktail, which differentiates epithelial tumors from non-epithelial tumors e.g. squamous vs. adenocarcinoma of the lung, liver carcinoma, breast cancer, and esophageal cancer. It has been used to characterize the source of various neoplasms and to study the distribution of cytokeratin containing cells in epithelia during normal development and during the development of epithelial neoplasms. This antibody stains cytokeratins present in normal and abnormal human tissues and has shown high sensitivity in the recognition of epithelial cells and carcinomas.
Protein A or G purified
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Mol. Weight of Antigen: 40 - 67 kDa 1. The staining pattern of the pan cytokeratin antibody cocktail may be different than that of either antibody separately. 2. The pan cytokeratin cocktail does not react with keratin18, which is also expressed in carcinomas. As such, negative staining with NBP2-29429 in of itself may not be sufficient evidence to rule out the possibility of a carcinoma (Ordonez, 2013). a. For example, hepatocellular, adrenal cortical, clear cell renal and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas have been reported to be negative for the pan cytokeratin antibody. In this regard, the pan cytokeratin antibody can be used as part of a screening panel to more extensively define the tumor cell lineages. 3. The pan cytokeratin antibody may cross-react with GFAP, leading to aberrant positive staining of glial tumors such as ependymoma, glioblastoma, or schwannoma (Ordonez, 2013).
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Keratin/cytokeratin AE1 + AE3 is a pan cytokeratin (also known as pan keratin) antibody cocktail that detects cytokeratins 1-8, 10, 14-16 and 19 (reviewed in Ordonez, 2013). The cocktail is an optimized mixture of two different monoclonal antibody clones, AE1 and AE3. Each clone detects a subset of high and low molecular weight cytokeratins: AE1 detects 10, 14-16, and 19; AE3 detects 1-8. A key advantage of the pan cytokeratin antibody cocktail stain is that a broader spectrum of cytokeratins can be detected compared to using each clone alone. The pan cytokeratin antibody cocktail is a well known broad spectrum immunohistochemical epithelial marker for screening for epithelial differentiation in tumors and their metastases. Most carcinomas have been reported to stain positive, and the antibody can help confirm or rule out the epithelial nature of a poorly differentiated tumor. Positive pan cytokeratin staining with the antibody in the lymph node (Nikura, 2007) or bone marrow ((Berg, 2007) can be an indication of metastatic carcinoma. The pan cytokeratin antibody has also been used to identify residual tumor post-treatment (Azumi, 2006), assess the depth of cancerous invasion (Alexander-Sefre, 2004) and predict survival outcome (Wiedswang, 2004). Negative pan cytokeratin staining patterns can suggest non-epithelial components associated with a carcinoma. For example, ductal lavage foam cells from breast carcinoma patients did not stain with the antibody (Krishnamurthy, 2002). Foam cells are apparently of macrophage origin and hence pan cytokeratin cocktail negative. The pan cytokeratin antibody staining patterns have been extensively documented in epithelium and numerous tumor types, dating back to 1982 (Woodcock-Mitchell) when the clones were first developed. As such, researchers are encouraged to survey the published literature for additional information about pan cytokeratin positive and negative staining tumors as well as in normal tissue.
This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.