Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE-1/AE-3)


Orthogonal Strategies: FFPE tissue sections of human metastatic tonsil were probed for Pan Cytokeratin mRNA (ACD RNAScope probe, catalog # 310221; Fast Red chromogen, ACD catalog # 322500). Adjacent tissue more
MCF-7 cells stained with Biotin conjugated version of pan Cytokeratin antibody and SAv-A488. A) SAv-A488 only at a dilution of 1:500, B) pan CK at a dilution of 1:200, C) pan CK at a dilution of 1:400, D) pan CK at a more
Analysis using Azide and BSA Free version of NBP2-29429. Human Colon Carcinoma stained with pan Cytokeratin Monoclonal Antibody cocktail (AE-1/AE3).
An intracellular stain was performed on HeLa cells with pan Cytokeratin Antibody (AE1 + AE3) NBP2-33200R (blue) and a matched isotype control (orange). Cells were fixed with 4% PFA and then permeabilized with 0.1% more
Human Pan-Cytokeratins on HeLa Cells. Black: Cells alone; Green: Isotype Control; Red: PE-labeled Pan-Cytokeratin Monoclonal Antibody (AE-1/AE-3)
Human fibroblasts. Blue: fibroblasts. Red: fibroblast + cytokeratin transfection. CyTOF image submitted by a verified customer review.

Product Details

Reactivity Hu, Mu, Rt, Bv, Ca, Ch, Pm, Rb, Re, ZeSpecies Glossary
Applications WB, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC, CyTOF-ready, Dual ISH-IHC, Single-Cell Western
0.2 mg/ml
Validated by:

Orthogonal Strategies


Order Details

Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE-1/AE-3) Summary

200ug/ml of antibody purified from Bioreactor Concentrate by Protein A or G. Prepared in 10 mM PBS with 0.05% BSA & 0.05% azide. Also available WITHOUT BSA & azide at 1.0 mg/ml. (NBP2-33200)

Antibody with azide - store at 2 to 8C. Antibody without azide - store at -20 to -80C. Antibody is stable for 24 months. Non-hazardous.
Human epidermal keratin
Epithelial Marker
Twenty human keratins are resolved with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis into acidic (pI 6.0) subfamilies. This antibody cocktail recognizes acidic (Type I or LMW) and basic (Type II or HMW) cytokeratins, which 67kDa (CK1); 64kDa (CK3); 59kDa (CK4); 58kDa (CK5); 56kDa (CK6); 52kDa (CK8); 56.5kDa (CK10); 50kDa (CK14); 50kDa (CK15); 48kDa (CK16); 40kDa (CK19). Many studies have shown the usefulness of keratins as markers in cancer research and tumor diagnosis. AE-1/AE-3 is a broad spectrum anti pan-cytokeratin antibody cocktail, which differentiates epithelial tumors from non-epithelial tumors e.g. squamous vs. adenocarcinoma of the lung, liver carcinoma, breast cancer, and esophageal cancer. It has been used to characterize the source of various neoplasms and to study the distribution of cytokeratin containing cells in epithelia during normal development and during the development of epithelial neoplasms. This antibody stains cytokeratins present in normal and abnormal human tissues and has shown high sensitivity in the recognition of epithelial cells and carcinomas.
IgG1 Kappa/IgG1 Kappa
Protein A or G purified
Innovator's Reward
Test in a species/application not listed above to receive a full credit towards a future purchase.


  • CyTOF-reported
  • Dual RNAscope ISH-IHC
  • Flow (Intracellular)
  • Flow Cytometry 1-2 ug/million cells
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence 1-2 ug/ml
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Immunohistochemistry-Frozen 0.5-1.0ug/ml
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin 0.25-0.5 ug/ml
  • Single Cell Western 1:10
  • Western Blot 1-2 ug/ml
Application Notes
Use in ICC/IF reported in scientific literature (PMID:34376789)
Immunohistochemistry (Formalin-fixed): 0.25-0.5ug/ml for 30 min at RT. Staining of formalin-fixed tissues requires heating tissue sections in 10mM Tris with 1mM EDTA, pH 9.0, for 45 min at 95C followed by cooling at RT for 20 minutes.
Optimal dilution for a specific application should be determined.
Western Blot: 1-2ug/ml for 2 hours at RT.
The staining pattern of the pan cytokeratin antibody cocktail may be different than that of either antibody separately.
This antibody cocktail recognizes acidic (Type I or LMW) and basic (Type II or HMW) cytokeratins, which 67 kDa (CK1) ; 64 kDa (CK3) ; 59 kDa (CK4) ; 58 kDa (CK5) ; 56 kDa (CK6) ; 52 kDa (CK8) ; 56.5 kDa (CK10) ; 50k Da (CK14) ; 50 kDa (CK15) ; 48 kDa (CK16) ; 40 kDa (CK19) . The pan cytokeratin cocktail does not react with keratin 18, which is also expressed in carcinomas. As such, negative staining with NBP2-29429 in of itself may not be sufficient evidence to rule out the possibility of a carcinoma (Ordonez, 2013) .
For example, hepatocellular, adrenal cortical, clear cell renal and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas have been reported to be negative for the pan cytokeratin antibody. In this regard, the pan cytokeratin antibody can be used as part of a screening panel to more extensively define the tumor cell lineages.
The pan cytokeratin antibody may cross-react with GFAP, leading to aberrant positive staining of glial tumors such as ependymoma, glioblastoma, or schwannoma (Ordonez, 2013) . Use in Immunohistochemistry reported in scientific literature (PMID: 29169625) . This Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE-1/AE-3) is validated for CyTOF from a verified customer review.
Reviewed Applications
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NBP2-29429 in the following applications:

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NBP2-29429 in the following applications:

Reactivity Notes

Reptile reactivity reported in scientific literature (PMID: 11351328). Zebrafish reactivity reported in scientific literature (PMID: 30970016).

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Store at 4C.
10 mM PBS with 0.05% BSA
0.05% Sodium Azide
0.2 mg/ml
Protein A or G purified

Alternate Names for Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE-1/AE-3)

  • AEI2;CK1;EHK;EHK1;EPPK;K1;Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 1;KRT1A;NEPPK


Cytokeratins are a family of intermediate filamentous proteins that are expressed by epithelial cells (1,2). Cytokeratins range in size with a theoretic molecular weight varying from approximately 40 kDa to 68 kDa (2,3). The cytokeratin family consists of 20 polypeptides that are further divided into two main groups based on isoelectric point and molecular weight (1-3). The type I group are smaller, acidic polypeptides designated as cytokeratin 9 through cytokeratin 20 (CK9 - CK20) (1-4). Conversely, CK1 - CK8 belong to the type II group, classified as larger, basic or neutral polypeptides (1-4). Structurally, cytokeratins have homologous basic structure with other intermediate filaments; they possess a 300-315 amino acid (aa) central helical region that consists of four conserved domains (1A, 2A, 1B, and 2B) which are separated by linker domains (L1, L12, and L2) (1,5). Additionally, flanking this central region, both the amino- and carboxyl-terminal ends have a homologous subdomain (H), a variable domain (V), and charged end subdomains (E) (1). Furthermore, the central rod of one cytokeratin monomer binds with another monomer to form a coiled-coil dimer which subsequently binds another dimer to form a tertramer (3). Finally, many tetramers join together to ultimately form an intermediate filament of approximately 10nm in diameter (1-3, 5). Cytokeratins are expressed as pairs, typically with a type I and type II member; for example, CK10 pairs with CK1 (1,3).

Epithelial cells express multiple subtypes of cytokeratins which can be used to classify epithelial cell type or differentiation status, as well tumor progression or diagnosis (2). Cytokeratins are important for both stability and integrity of epithelial cells and function in intracellular signaling, from wound healing to apoptosis (1). Cytokeratins are useful immunohistochemistry tumor markers and antibodies to cytokeratins are a common pathological tool (1,3,6). Cytokeratin pan antibody is an antibody cocktail mixture that can detect multiple cytokeratins and reacts to multiple epithelial tissues (1,3,6). For example, AE-1/AE-3 is a commonly used specific pan cytokeratin that detects cytokeratins 1-8, 10, 14-16 and 19 (1,3,6).

Given the role of cytokeratins in the structural integrity of epithelial cells, mutations in cytokeratins have been shown to play a role in a variety of human diseases including epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) (4,5). EBS is an autosomal dominant disorder that is caused by missense mutations in either CK5 or CK14 (5). Other known cytokeratin-related disorders include bullous ichthyosis, a skin disorder characterized by redness, blistering, and hyperkeratosis, and epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK), which results in hyperkeratosis on the palms and soles of the body (7).


1. Awasthi, P., Thahriani, A., Bhattacharya, A., Awasthi, P., & Keratins, B. A. (2016). Keratins or cytokeratins: a review article. Journal of Advanced Medical and Dental Sciences Research. https://10.21276/jamdsr.2016.4.4.30

2. Southgate, J., Harnden, P., & Trejdosiewicz, L. K. (1999). Cytokeratin expression patterns in normal and malignant urothelium: a review of the biological and diagnostic implications. Histology and histopathology.

3. Belaldavar, C., Mane, D. R., Hallikerimath, S., Kale, A. D. (2016). Cytokeratins: Its role and expression profile in oral health and disease. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology.

4. Linder S. (2007). Cytokeratin markers come of age. Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine.

5. Jacob, J. T., Coulombe, P. A., Kwan, R., & Omary, M. B. (2018). Types I and II Keratin Intermediate Filaments. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology.

6. Ordonez N. G. (2013). Broad-spectrum immunohistochemical epithelial markers: a review. Human pathology.

7. McLean, W. H., & Moore, C. B. (2011). Keratin disorders: from gene to therapy. Human molecular genetics.


This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.

Publications for Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (NBP2-29429)(54)

We have publications tested in 8 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Bovine, Canine, Chicken, Lizards, Zebrafish.

We have publications tested in 7 applications: ICC, ICC/IF, IF/IHC, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB.

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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 54. Show All 54 Publications.
Publications using NBP2-29429 Applications Species
Altunbulakli C, Jimenez DG, Askmyr D et al. Targeted spatial proteomic analysis of CD8+ T- and myeloid cells in tonsillar cancer Frontiers in oncology 2023-11-17 [PMID: 38044986]
Asemota S, Effah W, Young KL et al. Identification of a targetable JAK-STAT enriched androgen receptor and androgen receptor splice variant positive triple-negative breast cancer subtype Cell reports 2023-11-17 [PMID: 37979170] (IHC, Human) IHC Human
Roelofs P, Timmermans M, Stefanovska B et al. Aberrant APOBEC3B Expression in Breast Cancer Is Linked to Proliferation and Cell Cycle Phase Cells 2023-04-18 [PMID: 37190094]
Carter JM, Chumsri S, Hinerfeld DA et al. Distinct spatial immune microlandscapes are independently associated with outcomes in triple-negative breast cancer Nature communications 2023-04-18 [PMID: 37072398] (IHC, Human) IHC Human
Ganguly D, Schmidt MO, Coleman M et al. Pleiotrophin drives a prometastatic immune niche in breast cancer The Journal of experimental medicine 2023-05-01 [PMID: 36828390] (IHC, Human) IHC Human
Estermann MA, Major AT, Smith CA DMRT1 regulation of TOX3 modulates expansion of the gonadal steroidogenic cell lineage in the chicken embryo Development (Cambridge, England) 2023-02-16 [PMID: 36794750] (IHC-Fr) IHC-Fr
Park S, Karalis JD, Hong C et al. ACTA2 expression predicts survival and is associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in gastric cancer Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2022-12-12 [PMID: 36508166]
Roelands J, van der Ploeg M, Ijsselsteijn ME Et al. Transcriptomic and immunophenotypic profiling reveals molecular and immunological hallmarks of colorectal cancer tumourigenesis Gut 2022-11-28 [PMID: 36442992] (IHC-P, Human)

Citation using the Alexa Fluor 488 version of this antibody.
IHC-P Human
Hur JY, Ku BM, Park S et al. Prognostic value of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells for patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma PloS one 2022-10-06 [PMID: 36201479] (IHC-P, Human)

Dilution used in IHC 1:500
IHC-P Human
Yerly L, Pich-Bavastro C, Di Domizio J Et al. Integrated multi-omics reveals cellular and molecular interactions governing the invasive niche of basal cell carcinoma Nat Commun 2022-08-19 [PMID: 35986012] (IHC-P, Human)

Citation using the Azide and BSA Free version of this antibody.
IHC-P Human
Show All 54 Publications.

Review for Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (NBP2-29429) (1) 41

Average Rating: 4
(Based on 1 review)
We have 1 review tested in 1 species: Human.

Reviews using NBP2-29429:
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CyTOF Cytokeratin, pan NBP2-29429
reviewed by:
Toni johanson
CyTOF Human 03/31/2021


Sample Testedfibroblasts


Comments***Novus Innovators Program - new species or application used on a primary antibody.***

Product General Protocols

Video Protocols

WB Video Protocol
ICC/IF Video Protocol

FAQs for Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (NBP2-29429). (Showing 1 - 1 of 1 FAQs).

  1. Could you tell us recommended antigen retrieval method for this antibody?-EndFragment-->
    • Staining of formalin-fixed tissues requires boiling tissue sections in 10mM citrate buffer, pH 6.0, for 10-20 min followed by cooling at RT for 20 minutes. Optimal dilution of antibody for IHC should be determined by the user. 

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Recent Reviews


Toni johanson
Application: CyTOF
Species: Human


Gene Symbol KRT1