Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE-1/AE-3)


Orthogonal Strategies: Dual RNAscope ISH-IHC: Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE-1/AE-3) [NBP2-29429] - FFPE tissue sections of human metastatic tonsil were probed for Pan Cytokeratin mRNA (ACD RNAScope probe, catalog more
Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE-1/AE-3) [NBP2-29429] - MCF-7 cells stained with Biotin conjugated version of pan Cytokeratin antibody and SAv-A488. A) SAv-A488 only at a dilution more
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE-1/AE-3) [NBP2-29429] - Pan Cytokeratin was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human liver cancer tissue using 1.7 ug/mL of mouse more
Flow (Intracellular): Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE-1/AE-3) [NBP2-29429] - An intracellular stain was performed on HeLa cells with pan Cytokeratin Antibody (AE1 + AE3) NBP2-33200R (blue) and a matched isotype control more
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE-1/AE-3) [NBP2-29429] - Analysis using Azide and BSA Free version of NBP2-29429. Human Colon Carcinoma stained with pan Cytokeratin Monoclonal Antibody more
Flow Cytometry: Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE-1/AE-3) [NBP2-29429] - Human Pan-Cytokeratins on HeLa Cells. Black: Cells alone; Green: Isotype Control; Red: PE-labeled Pan-Cytokeratin Monoclonal Antibody (AE-1/AE-3)
Flow (Intracellular): Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE-1/AE-3) [NBP2-29429] - An intracellular stain was performed on HeLa cells with pan Cytokeratin Antibody (AE1 + AE3) NBP2-33200AF647 (blue) and a matched isotype more
Flow (Intracellular): Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE-1/AE-3) [NBP2-29429] - An intracellular stain was performed on HeLa cells with pan Cytokeratin Antibody (AE1 + AE3) NBP2-33200PE (blue) and a matched isotype control more
CyTOF-reported: Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE-1/AE-3) [NBP2-29429] - Human fibroblasts. Blue: fibroblasts. Red: fibroblast + cytokeratin transfection. CyTOF image submitted by a verified customer review.

Product Details

Reactivity Hu, Mu, Rt, Bv, Ca, Ch, Pm, Rb, Re, ZeSpecies Glossary
Applications WB, Flow, Flow-IC, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, CyTOF-reported, Dual ISH-IHC, Single-Cell Western
0.2 mg/ml
Validated by:

Orthogonal Strategies


Order Details

Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE-1/AE-3) Summary

Human epidermal keratin
Epithelial Marker
Twenty human keratins are resolved with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis into acidic (pI 6.0) subfamilies. This antibody cocktail recognizes acidic (Type I or LMW) and basic (Type II or HMW) cytokeratins, which 67kDa (CK1); 64kDa (CK3); 59kDa (CK4); 58kDa (CK5); 56kDa (CK6); 52kDa (CK8); 56.5kDa (CK10); 50kDa (CK14); 50kDa (CK15); 48kDa (CK16); 40kDa (CK19). Many studies have shown the usefulness of keratins as markers in cancer research and tumor diagnosis. AE-1/AE-3 is a broad spectrum anti pan-cytokeratin antibody cocktail, which differentiates epithelial tumors from non-epithelial tumors e.g. squamous vs. adenocarcinoma of the lung, liver carcinoma, breast cancer, and esophageal cancer. It has been used to characterize the source of various neoplasms and to study the distribution of cytokeratin containing cells in epithelia during normal development and during the development of epithelial neoplasms. This antibody stains cytokeratins present in normal and abnormal human tissues and has shown high sensitivity in the recognition of epithelial cells and carcinomas.
IgG1 Kappa/IgG1 Kappa
Protein A or G purified
Innovator's Reward
Test in a species/application not listed above to receive a full credit towards a future purchase.


  • CyTOF-reported
  • Dual RNAscope ISH-IHC
  • Flow (Intracellular)
  • Flow Cytometry 1-2 ug/million cells
  • Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence 1-2 ug/ml
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Immunohistochemistry-Frozen 0.5-1.0ug/ml
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin 0.25-0.5 ug/ml
  • Single Cell Western 1:10
  • Western Blot 1-2 ug/ml
Application Notes
Use in ICC/IF reported in scientific literature (PMID:34376789)
Immunohistochemistry (Formalin-fixed): 0.25-0.5ug/ml for 30 min at RT. Staining of formalin-fixed tissues requires heating tissue sections in 10mM Tris with 1mM EDTA, pH 9.0, for 45 min at 95C followed by cooling at RT for 20 minutes.
Optimal dilution for a specific application should be determined.
Western Blot: 1-2ug/ml for 2 hours at RT.
The staining pattern of the pan cytokeratin antibody cocktail may be different than that of either antibody separately.
This antibody cocktail recognizes acidic (Type I or LMW) and basic (Type II or HMW) cytokeratins, which 67 kDa (CK1) ; 64 kDa (CK3) ; 59 kDa (CK4) ; 58 kDa (CK5) ; 56 kDa (CK6) ; 52 kDa (CK8) ; 56.5 kDa (CK10) ; 50k Da (CK14) ; 50 kDa (CK15) ; 48 kDa (CK16) ; 40 kDa (CK19) . The pan cytokeratin cocktail does not react with keratin 18, which is also expressed in carcinomas. As such, negative staining with NBP2-29429 in of itself may not be sufficient evidence to rule out the possibility of a carcinoma (Ordonez, 2013) .
For example, hepatocellular, adrenal cortical, clear cell renal and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas have been reported to be negative for the pan cytokeratin antibody. In this regard, the pan cytokeratin antibody can be used as part of a screening panel to more extensively define the tumor cell lineages.
The pan cytokeratin antibody may cross-react with GFAP, leading to aberrant positive staining of glial tumors such as ependymoma, glioblastoma, or schwannoma (Ordonez, 2013) . Use in Immunohistochemistry reported in scientific literature (PMID: 29169625) . This Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (AE-1/AE-3) is validated for CyTOF from a verified customer review.
Reviewed Applications
Read 1 Review rated 4
NBP2-29429 in the following applications:

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NBP2-29429 in the following applications:

Reactivity Notes

Reptile reactivity reported in scientific literature (PMID: 11351328). Zebrafish reactivity reported in scientific literature (PMID: 30970016).

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Store at 4C.
10 mM PBS with 0.05% BSA
0.05% Sodium Azide
0.2 mg/ml
Protein A or G purified


200ug/ml of antibody purified from Bioreactor Concentrate by Protein A or G. Prepared in 10 mM PBS with 0.05% BSA & 0.05% azide. Also available WITHOUT BSA & azide at 1.0 mg/ml. (NBP2-33200)

Antibody with azide - store at 2 to 8C. Antibody without azide - store at -20 to -80C. Antibody is stable for 24 months. Non-hazardous.


Cytokeratins are a family of intermediate filamentous proteins that are expressed by epithelial cells (1,2). Cytokeratins range in size with a theoretic molecular weight varying from approximately 40 kDa to 68 kDa (2,3). The cytokeratin family consists of 20 polypeptides that are further divided into two main groups based on isoelectric point and molecular weight (1-3). The type I group are smaller, acidic polypeptides designated as cytokeratin 9 through cytokeratin 20 (CK9 - CK20) (1-4). Conversely, CK1 - CK8 belong to the type II group, classified as larger, basic or neutral polypeptides (1-4). Structurally, cytokeratins have homologous basic structure with other intermediate filaments; they possess a 300-315 amino acid (aa) central helical region that consists of four conserved domains (1A, 2A, 1B, and 2B) which are separated by linker domains (L1, L12, and L2) (1,5). Additionally, flanking this central region, both the amino- and carboxyl-terminal ends have a homologous subdomain (H), a variable domain (V), and charged end subdomains (E) (1). Furthermore, the central rod of one cytokeratin monomer binds with another monomer to form a coiled-coil dimer which subsequently binds another dimer to form a tertramer (3). Finally, many tetramers join together to ultimately form an intermediate filament of approximately 10nm in diameter (1-3, 5). Cytokeratins are expressed as pairs, typically with a type I and type II member; for example, CK10 pairs with CK1 (1,3).

Epithelial cells express multiple subtypes of cytokeratins which can be used to classify epithelial cell type or differentiation status, as well tumor progression or diagnosis (2). Cytokeratins are important for both stability and integrity of epithelial cells and function in intracellular signaling, from wound healing to apoptosis (1). Cytokeratins are useful immunohistochemistry tumor markers and antibodies to cytokeratins are a common pathological tool (1,3,6). Cytokeratin pan antibody is an antibody cocktail mixture that can detect multiple cytokeratins and reacts to multiple epithelial tissues (1,3,6). For example, AE-1/AE-3 is a commonly used specific pan cytokeratin that detects cytokeratins 1-8, 10, 14-16 and 19 (1,3,6).

Given the role of cytokeratins in the structural integrity of epithelial cells, mutations in cytokeratins have been shown to play a role in a variety of human diseases including epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) (4,5). EBS is an autosomal dominant disorder that is caused by missense mutations in either CK5 or CK14 (5). Other known cytokeratin-related disorders include bullous ichthyosis, a skin disorder characterized by redness, blistering, and hyperkeratosis, and epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK), which results in hyperkeratosis on the palms and soles of the body (7).


1. Awasthi, P., Thahriani, A., Bhattacharya, A., Awasthi, P., & Keratins, B. A. (2016). Keratins or cytokeratins: a review article. Journal of Advanced Medical and Dental Sciences Research. https://10.21276/jamdsr.2016.4.4.30

2. Southgate, J., Harnden, P., & Trejdosiewicz, L. K. (1999). Cytokeratin expression patterns in normal and malignant urothelium: a review of the biological and diagnostic implications. Histology and histopathology.

3. Belaldavar, C., Mane, D. R., Hallikerimath, S., Kale, A. D. (2016). Cytokeratins: Its role and expression profile in oral health and disease. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology.

4. Linder S. (2007). Cytokeratin markers come of age. Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine.

5. Jacob, J. T., Coulombe, P. A., Kwan, R., & Omary, M. B. (2018). Types I and II Keratin Intermediate Filaments. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology.

6. Ordonez N. G. (2013). Broad-spectrum immunohistochemical epithelial markers: a review. Human pathology.

7. McLean, W. H., & Moore, C. B. (2011). Keratin disorders: from gene to therapy. Human molecular genetics.


This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.

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Publications for Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (NBP2-29429)(37)

We have publications tested in 10 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Bovine, Canine, Chicken, ICC/IF, IHC, Lizards, Zebrafish.

We have publications tested in 7 applications: Human, ICC, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB.

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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 37. Show All 37 Publications.
Publications using NBP2-29429 Applications Species
Estermann MA, Hirst CE, Major AT, Smith CA The homeobox gene TGIF1 is required for chicken ovarian cortical development and generation of the juxtacortical medulla Development (Cambridge, England) Aug 15 2021 [PMID: 34387307] (IHC, Chicken) IHC Chicken
YAMAGIWA Y, MASATSUGU M, TAHARA H et al. Orbital malignant schwannoma and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in rats caused by leakage of locally injected nickel subsulfide to the orbit Journal of Toxicologic Pathology Feb 26 2021 (IHC-P, Rat) IHC-P Rat
Khan M, Yoo SJ, Clijsters M et al. Visualizing in deceased COVID-19 patients how SARS-CoV-2 attacks the respiratory and olfactory mucosae but spares the olfactory bulb Cell Nov 1 2021 [PMID: 34798069] (IHC)

Citation using the Alexa Fluor 488 format of this antibody.
Karabacak N, Zheng Y, Dubash T, et al. Single cell proteomics of tumor compartments identifies differential kinase activities defining sensitivity to mTOR-PI3-kinase inhibition bioRxiv Jan 10 2021 (Mouse) Mouse
Yoshida Y, Ding X, Iwatsuki K Et al. Detection of Lung Cancer Cells in Solutions Using a Terahertz Chemical Microscope Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Nov 17 2021 [PMID: 34833707] (Human) Human
Yamamoto H, Elbadawy M, Fujisaka K et al. Evaluation of the Safety and Feasibility of Apheresis in Dogs: For Application in Metastatic Cancer Research Animals Sep 23 2021 [PMID: 34679792] (ICC/IF, Human) ICC/IF Human
Cho JW, Park S, Kim G Et al. Dysregulation of TFH-B-TRM lymphocyte cooperation is associated with unfavorable anti-PD-1 responses in EGFR-mutant lung cancer Nature communications Oct 18 2021 [PMID: 34663810] (IHC-P, Human) IHC-P Human
Shiokawa M, Miura R, Okubo A Et al. Bovine endometrium-derived cultured cells are suitable for lipofection Scientific reports Aug 10 2021 [PMID: 34376789] (ICC/IF, Bovine) ICC/IF Bovine
Hamdan F, YlOsmAki E, Chiaro J et al. Novel oncolytic adenovirus expressing enhanced cross-hybrid IgGA Fc PD-L1 inhibitor activates multiple immune effector populations leading to enhanced tumor killing in vitro, in vivo and with patient-derived tumor organoids J Immunother Cancer Nov 1 2021 [PMID: 34362830] (Human, ICC/IF)

Citation using the Alexa Fluor 750 format of this antibody.
Human ICC/IF
Oppel, F, Ki, D H Et al. suz12 inactivation in p53 and nf1 deficient zebrafish accelerates the onset of MPNSTs and expands the spectrum of tumor types to include adenocarcinoma, leukemia, and soft tissue sarcoma. Dis Model Mech Jan 1 2020 [PMID: 34005093]
Show All 37 Publications.

Review for Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (NBP2-29429) (1) 41

Average Rating: 4
(Based on 1 review)
We have 1 review tested in 1 species: Human.

Reviews using NBP2-29429:
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CyTOF Cytokeratin, pan NBP2-29429
reviewed by:
Verified Customer
CyTOF Human 03/31/2021


Sample Testedfibroblasts


Comments***Novus Innovators Program - new species or application used on a primary antibody.***

Product General Protocols

Video Protocols

WB Video Protocol
ICC/IF Video Protocol

FAQs for Cytokeratin, pan Antibody (NBP2-29429). (Showing 1 - 1 of 1 FAQs).

  1. Could you tell us recommended antigen retrieval method for this antibody?-EndFragment-->
    • Staining of formalin-fixed tissues requires boiling tissue sections in 10mM citrate buffer, pH 6.0, for 10-20 min followed by cooling at RT for 20 minutes. Optimal dilution of antibody for IHC should be determined by the user. 

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Verified Customer
Application: CyTOF
Species: Human


Gene Symbol KRT1