Cyclin D1

Dual applications of a c-Myc antibody in mitochondrial research

c-Myc, a proto-oncogene, has documented involvement in cellular differentiation, cell growth, cell death and tumor formation.  Target genes of the Myc family include those that participate in cell survival, translation, transcription, metabolism and more.  On a more specific level, c-Myc is a transcription factor that can both activate and repress its target protein by way of DNA modifications.  This allows for the use of a c-Myc antibody in two manners; it can be used to monitor the actual c-Myc protein expression levels, or, it

The dynamic use of a PCNA antibody in fish, porcine and primate species

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays a crucial role in nucleic acid metabolism as it pertains to DNA replication and repair.  Most noted for its activation of subunits of DNA polymerase, it has also been found to interact with cell-cycle progression proteins.  Modifications of PCNA as a result of cellular response put PCNA in a pivotal position with DNA replication, DNA damage, and chromatin structure and function.  In response to DNA damage, PCNA is ubiquitinated and becomes part of the RAD-6 dependent DNA repair pathway, where it acts as a substrate with a variety of p

Transportin 1 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D (hnRNPD)

Transportin 1, also known as Karyopherin- β 2 or Importin- β 2, is part of the β-karyopherins family, which consists of importins and exportins responsible for the active transport of proteins between the nucleus and cytoplasm.  Transportin 1 is composed of twenty HEAT (or a tandem repeat protein structural motif comprised of two alpha helices that end with a short loop) stacks that form a helix.  In the presence of Ran-GTP, Transportin 1 undergoes a conformational change to release the cargo it’s transporting.  Transportin 1 is known to bi

Beta-catenin - I am versatile!

Beta-catenin is a cytosolic, 88 kDa intracellular protein associated with cell surface cadherin glycoproteins. It is a member of the larger calcium-dependent catenin family that includes alpha-catenin, beta-catenin, and gamma-catenin (also known as plakoglobin). Beta-catenin enters the nucleus to interact with TCF/LEF (Lymphoid enhancer factor-1) transcription factor family. It is normally inhibited by the GSK (glycogen synthase kinase) or CK1 (casein kinase 1) as phosphorylation of beta-catenin targets it for ubiquitin-mediated degradation.

IKK alpha says "no" to NFk beta

The nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor essential for the activation of immune and inflammatory responses. NFkB activity is inhibited when it is associated with IkB proteins in the cell cytoplasm. IkB proteins are phosphorylated by the IkB kinase complex. The IKK serine protein kinase consists of alpha and beta subunits (IKK alpha and IKK beta). These subunits interact with each other and together, are essential for NFkB activation. IKK alpha is expressed in variety of human tissues.

Beta Catenin Implications for Signaling

The Wnt/beta Catenin signaling pathway plays a critical role in embryonic development, stem cell self-renewal and regeneration. Alterations in this signaling cascade have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer.

Role of RASSF1A in Death Receptor-Dependent Apoptosis

Death-receptor apoptosis, or cell death, is essential for cellular growth regulation; its disruption is expressed in a variety of cancers. We at Novus Biologicals are one of the leading antibody suppliersfor apoptosis and cancer research groups, and therefore have a large antibody database targeting death receptor proteins.