Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays a crucial role in nucleic acid metabolism as it pertains to DNA replication and repair. Most noted for its activation of subunits of DNA polymerase, it has also been found to interact with cell-cycle progression proteins. Modifications of PCNA as a result of cellular response put PCNA in a pivotal position with DNA replication, DNA damage, and chromatin structure and function. In response to DNA damage, PCNA is ubiquitinated and becomes part of the RAD-6 dependent DNA repair pathway, where it acts as a substrate with a variety of proteins. In DNA replication, PCNA acts as a sliding clamp that localizes proteins to DNA strands. Additionally, the presence of PCNA at DNA maintenance sites where delayed replication forks are found further points to its role in DNA damage and repair. The PCNA mouse monoclonal antibody (PC10) from Novus Biologicals has been effective to study PCNA characteristics in a wide variety of animal species.
Immunohistochemistry-Frozen: PCNA Antibody (PC10) [NB500-106] - IHC analysis of a paraformaldehyde fixed frozen section of brain from murine embryo using PCNA antibody clone PC10 (green), an IB4 antibody (red) and DAPI. Image provided by Dr Siegenthaler via product review.
Pushchina et al used a PCNA (PC10) antibody in their study of cellular proliferation and apoptosis in optic nerve and brain centers of adult trout after optic nerve injury. Interestingly, fish have an incredible repair mechanism for their nerve structures and fibers after injury, however the exact process of this repair is not well understood. Adult trout were exposed to an optic nerve injury and after 1-week nerve cell proliferation was observed. Using a PCNA (PC10) antibody in immunocytochemistry, PCNA positive radial glial cells were discovered. Pushchina went on to use a PCNA (PC10) antibody to show that PCNA did not co-localize with Pax2 positive cells in goldfish, and that PCNA positive cells were different in contralateral and ipsilateral trout optic nerve samples.
Next, Hu et al used a PCNA (PC10) antibody in porcine samples in order to study the synergy of TLR3 and TLR7 in enhancing the function of dendritic cells in PRRSV. RRS, or porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome, has a significant economic impact on the swine industry and current vaccinations provide little protection from the virus. In this experiment, a PCNA (PC10) antibody was used in western blot of nuclear fractions taken from MoDC’s as a nuclear control alongside NFkB.
Lastly, Waseem et al isolated the cDNA for rat PCNA and cloned it into a series of bacterial expression vectors in order to determine the epitope of the PCNA antibody. Primarily, the PCNA (PC10) antibody was used in immunocytochemical analysis of primate epithelial cell lines. The findings showed that PCNA represents a variety of genetically distinct forms, and that they each localize to unique parts of the nucleus.
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