TLR9: For Whom the Cell Tolls

Mon, 05/12/2014 - 15:03

The Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) protein, also known as CD289, belongs to the family of Toll-like receptor (TLR) proteins which play a large role in pathogen recognition and the activation of innate immunity. Scientists using TLR9 antibodies have found that TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans, with a high degree of structural and functional homology1,2. TLR proteins in general recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) present on a diverse range of exogenous and endogenous ligands – including infectious agents - and regulate the cytokine production required for effective immunity development. Specifically, TLR9 detects unmethylated CpG dinucleotides. Studies in human glioblastoma with the TLR9 antibody found varying TLR9 RNA levels, suggesting that treatment with immunostimulating oligonucleotides with CpG motifs (CpG-ODN) that mainly target TLR9 may require prognostic assessments3.

Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: TLR9 Antibody Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: TLR9 Antibody

TLR9 antibodies were used by Xu’s group to investigate microRNAs in TLR9-dependent signaling in human lung cancer cells, where they found that miR-7 played a key role as a fine-tuner4. Furthermore, Belmont et al were able to demonstrate that TLR9 expression in mononuclear cells from lung adenocarcinoma mouse models with an angiogenic phenotype is associated with poorer survival5.  Their studies using the TLR9 antibody will be helpful in further clinical development of TLR9 ligands as cancer treatments. Given the role of TLR in both immunity and inflammation, researchers used the TLR9 antibody to identify concomitant elevated levels of TLR9, TLR7, anti-ENA, and anti-dsDNA auto antibodies in the autoimmune disorder SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus)6. These complex expression profiles with distinct autoantibody repertoire signatures will allow classifications of different SLE patient subsets.

Novus Biologicals offers TLR9 reagents for your research needs including:


  1. 11022119
  2. 18810425
  3. 18253698
  4. 23135998
  5. 23913633
  6. 23564191

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