Lipid and Metabolism

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders involve extracellular Nef-induced modification of lipid rafts and redistribution of Alzheimer’s disease-related proteins

Insulin signaling in adipocytes: Carbohydrate-signaling transcription factor ChREBP is the link between lipolytic enzyme Hormone-Sensitive Lipase and lipogenic enzyme ELOVL6

Inhibiting incretin GIP hormone activity in mouse and monkey models to combat obesity

The release of insulin from pancreas beta-cells is controlled by glucose levels, Vagus nerve input, and GLP-1 from the intestines.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

Insulin signaling in brain’s subfornical organ is crucial for regulating cardiometabolic profile

Muscle-specific UBE2O ablation requires activated AMPKα2 to protect against metabolic syndrome

Metabolic Syndrome: Symptoms and associated disease states

Eat responsibly: Epigenetic downregulation of Ankrd26 gene by long-term high-fat intake promotes obesity and inflammation

AMPK Alpha 1 and lipid metabolism of adipocytes

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is best known as a sensor of oxidative stress.  AMPK is activated by increased intracellular AMP levels, which are a result of alterations in cellular metabolism from causes such as hypoxia, changes in ATP, senescence and more.  In cell stress models, AMPK can protect cells from reduced ATP production by altering ATP biosynthetic pathways.  Furthermore, AMPK has implications in reducing inflammatory reactions in apoptosis pathways.

MMP-2: More Than a Cancer Marker

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are a family of endopeptidases involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix (ECM) during both normal physiological and disease processes. MMP-2 is a zinc-dependent family member that selectively cleaves collagen and elastin, major structural components of the basement membrane. In addition, MMP-2 has been found to affect a number of non-matrix proteins such as big endothelin-1 (Fernandez-Patron et al., 1999), KISS (Takino et al., 2003), GSK3B (Kandasamy et al., 2009), and CHUK (Olivotto et al., 2013).

Transferrin and the blood brain barrier

Transferrin, an iron binding protein that facilitates iron uptake in cells, is an integral part of a mechanism that may introduce antibody therapies to the central nervous system. Currently, the brain’s ability to take in antibody therapies is limited by the presence of the blood brain barrier.