Tubulin is the major building block of microtubules. Microtubules function as structural and mobile elements in mitosis, intracellular transport, flagellar movement and in the cytoskeleton. The tubulin superfamily is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulins. Alpha and beta tubulin dimers are assembled to 13 protofilaments that form a microtubule of 22 nm diameter with a theoretical molecular weight of 50 kDa.
Tyrosine ligase adds a C-terminal tyrosine to monomeric alpha tubulin. Assembled microtubules can again be detyrosinated by a cytoskeleton associated carboxypeptidase. Detyrosinated alpha tubulin is referred to as Glu-tubulin. Another post-translational modification of detyrosinated alpha tubulin is C-terminal polyglutamylation which is characteristic for microtubules in neuronal cells and the mitotic spindle.
Like GAPDH and beta-actin, alpha/beta tubulin is often used as a loading control in immunoblot applications (1). Alpha/beta tubulin is also good for counterstaining microtubules in immunofluorescence (2).
1. Hannen, R., Selmansberger, M., Hauswald, M., Pagenstecher, A., Nist, A., Stiewe, T.,... Bartsch, J. W. (2019). Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Temozolomide Resistant Primary GBM Stem-Like Cells and Recurrent GBM Identifies Up-Regulation of the Carbonic Anhydrase CA2 Gene as Resistance Factor. Cancers (Basel), 11(7). doi:10.3390/cancers11070921
2. Nel, M., Joubert, A. M., Dohle, W., Potter, B. V., & Theron, A. E. (2018). Modes of cell death induced by tetrahydroisoquinoline-based analogs in MDA-MB-231 breast and A549 lung cancer cell lines. Drug Des Devel Ther, 12, 1881-1904. doi:10.2147/dddt.S152718
|Product By Gene ID
- Tubulin B-alpha-1
- tubulin, alpha, brain-specific
- Tubulin alpha-3 chain
- tubulin, alpha 3
- Alpha-tubulin 3
- tubulin alpha-1A chain
- tubulin, alpha 1a