We at Novus Biologicals place a lot of emphasis on the kinase signaling pathways. Kinases, or phosphotransferase enzymes play a key role in phosphorylation signaling. Over 500 human protein kinases have so far been discovered. They play essential roles in glucose metabolism, apoptosis, lipid transport, cell migration, cellular differentiation and other cellular functions. Additionally, they often play multiple roles, in more than one cascade. The complex nature of phosphotransferase pathways can be shown by the many areas that AKT antibody research covers.
Antibody research has identified three Akt proteins that play essential roles in many signaling pathways. Akt1 is known to play key roles in a number of pathways, including apoptosis, protein synthesis, skeletal muscle growth and angiogenesis. Akt1 inhibits the pro-apoptotic BAD/Bcl-2/Bcl-X complex by BAD phosphorylation, and has been implicated in many types of cancer.
Akt2 is needed for activation of the glucose transporter GLUT-4, and is essential to the insulin signaling pathway. It also silences GSK3, which inhibits a number of proteins, including glycogen synthase, by phosphorylation. Akt antibody research has shown Akt2 plays a similar role in Wnt signaling; GSK-3 phosphorylates beta Catenin in this pathway.
The kinase signaling pathways are complex and time consuming to research, so anything antibody suppliers can do to make life easier is welcome. We at Novus Biologicals recently introduced a new range of Mix-and-Match Pathway Assay Kits, which allow comparison of six key kinase signalling pathways – including those utilising AKT. Antibody analysis is easily achieved, using a simple ELISA multiwell format.
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