Actin proteins are highly conserved in eukaryotic cells and are involved in cell motility, structure and integrity. Actin and myosin are involved in a myriad of cellular processes including locomotion, secretion, cytoplasmic streaming, phagocytosis and cytokinesis. Actin filaments, along with microtubules, comprise a major component of the cytoskeleton and play essential roles in regulating cell shape and movement. Actin has been found to be expressed in at least six isoforms, each encoded by a separate gene and expressed in a developmentally regulated and tissue-specific manner. Alpha, beta and gamma actin isoforms have been identified. Alpha actins are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus, whereas beta and gamma actins are involved in the regulation of cell motility.
ACTA2 encodes alpha Smooth Muscle Actin and is also known as alpha-actin, alpha-actin-2, aortic smooth muscle or alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA, SMactin, alpha-SM-actin, ASMA). Alpha Smooth Muscle Actin is frequently used as a marker of smooth muscle differentiation and has a theoretical molecular weight of 42 kDa. Smooth muscle alpha actin is one of a few genes whose expression is predominantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells that is used to study myofibroblasts and fibrosis (1). Excessive accumulation of alpha smooth muscle actin-positive (ACTA2+) activated myofibroblasts is observed in Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (2). Expression of smooth muscle alpha actin is regulated by cell proliferation and is altered in pathological conditions including atherosclerosis and is common in metastatic cancers (1,3).
1. Chakraborty, R., Saddouk, F. Z., Carrao, A. C., Krause, D. S., Greif, D. M., & Martin, K. A. (2019). Promoters to Study Vascular Smooth Muscle. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 39(4), 603-612. doi:10.1161/atvbaha.119.312449
2.El Agha, E., Moiseenko, A., Kheirollahi, V., De Langhe, S., Crnkovic, S., Kwapiszewska, G.,... Bellusci, S. (2017). Two-Way Conversion between Lipogenic and Myogenic Fibroblastic Phenotypes Marks the Progression and Resolution of Lung Fibrosis. Cell Stem Cell, 20(2), 261-273.e263. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2016.10.004
3. Chen, Y. C., Gonzalez, M. E., Burman, B., Zhao, X., Anwar, T., Tran, M.,... Kleer, C. G. (2019). Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell Engulfment Reveals Metastatic Advantage in Breast Cancer. Cell Rep, 27(13), 3916-3926.e3915. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2019.05.084
|Product By Gene ID
- alpha SMA
- smooth muscle actin
- Cell growth-inhibiting gene 46 protein
- growth-inhibiting gene 46
- actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta
- actin, aortic smooth muscle
- alpha 2 actin
- alpha smooth muscle actin