Synapsins are a family of neuronal proteins that are most renowned for their activity in modulating the pre-synaptic terminal. Synapsin’s behavior is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases, which alter the way that synapsin’s interact with actin filaments and other nearby proteins. There are three isoforms of Synapsin – Synapsin I, II and III. Synapsin I specifically localizes to the membrane of presynaptic vesicles and plays a role in regulation of axonogenesis and synaptogenesis. Mutations in Synapsin I have been associated with X-linked disorders with primary neuronal degeneration and epilepsy.
Federici et al used a Synapsin I antibody (Cat# NB300-104) as a biomarker in their study on depression of synaptic dopamine release with cocaine and methylphenidate use. The Synapsin I antibody was used in western blot to follow the effects of these two drug compounds on pre-synaptic protein activation. They found that cocaine and methylphenidate caused a decrease in Synapsin phosphorylation, however they also witnessed cocaine and methylphenidate having the reverse affect of dopamine depression. They concluded that the dual function of dopamine neurotransmission may contribute to the behavioral effects that are seen with different stimulants (calming vs. hyperactive).
Synapsin I Antibody [NB300-104] - ICC-IF validation analysis of Synapsin 1 Antibody on cultured rat caudate neurons. This representative image shows the punctate distribution of Synapsin 1 (green) and MAP (red) proteins in a neuronal cell.
While the prior study utilized Synapsin I as a probe going into their experiment, the Steinman et al group set out to understand food restriction and cognitive performance in mice and found that Synapsin I was increased in the hippocampus in relation to shorter periods of day length. However, diet restriction reversed the effects of the Synapsin I production. By use of a Synapsin I antibody, Steinman’s group had the ability to look at the levels of Synapsin I in the hippocampus using immunohistochemistry. Their studies revealed an interesting correlation with food restriction and day length in spatial learning.
A Synapsin I antibody was also used by Gho et al as a neural marker in their studies to investigate the process from which adult hair follicle stem cells can differentiate into neurons and glia. This discovery has opportunity to change cell-based therapy for many neurodegenerative disorders. Their group successfully differentiated hair follicle bulges into neurons, confirmed by the presence of a variety of neuronal markers at the appropriate stages through immunohistochemistry.
Overall, with the function of Synapsin I at the presynaptic terminal and its association with synaptic membranes established, this proteins role in other pathologies and pathways has been a promising focus shift.
Novus Biologicals offers Synapsin I reagents for your research needs including:
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