GAPDH is a 146 kDa tetramer metabolic enzyme within the glycolytic pathway that reversibly oxidatively phosphorylates glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. It may have other additional functions in transcriptional activation. It is highly expressed due to its housekeeping functional role, and the prevalent expression of GAPDH has facilitated its use as an internal loading control – traditionally for mRNA expression comparisons – but also in protein studies.
A growing body of data and studies using actin antibodies supports a view of the actin cytoskeleton of smooth muscle cells as a dynamic structure that plays an integral role in regulating the development of mechanical tension and the material properties of smooth muscle tissues.
Western blotting is an essential technique to probe protein expression in complex cell or tissue lysates. To accurately determine protein expression and interpret Western blot results, it is important to use loading controls. A loading control antibody helps determine if samples have been loaded equally across all wells and confirms effective protein transfer during the western blot protocol.
The loading controls on our antibody database are widely used in gel electrophoresis and Western blotting studies. Products like the GAPDH antibody detect "housekeeping" proteins which are abundantly distributed in cells. This makes them useful for checking the even loading of gel samples, and the even transfer of proteins at the blotting stage. They also serve a purpose in quality control, by verifying reagents are working correctly, and in the standardization of experimental results.
GAPDH antibodies are commonly used as a loading control, due to GAPDH's widespread function as a house-keeping protein. As a leading scientific research antibody supplier, Novus Biologicals offer a wide range of GAPDH antibody reagents and support products.
COX IV isoform 1 is a nuclear-encoded polypeptide chain of the Cytochrome C Oxidase enzyme, located on the mitochondrial inner membrane. Owing to its widespread distribution in human and mammalian tissues, COX IV antibodies are widely used as loading controls for immunological assays.
One of six actin isoforms so far identified, beta actin is a highly conserved cytoskeletal protein involved in cell structure, motility, and cohesion. We at Novus Biologicals have many different beta-actin products in our catalog, used in areas such as cytoskeleton and signal transduction research. They are also used as loading controls in protein assays. Beta-actin is known as a “housekeeping” protein, i.e.
The glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, or GAPDH enzyme plays an important role in the conversion of glucose for energy, catalyzing the sixth step of the glycolytic pathway. A common and widely expressed protein, GAPDH mRNA is often used as a standard in mRNA studies. GAPDH antibody products are also used as a loading control in Western blot assays. We at Novus Biologicals have 55 GAPDH antibody products on our antibody database.