GAPDH: More than a Loading Control

Thu, 10/17/2013 - 12:54

GAPDH is a 146 kDa tetramer metabolic enzyme within the glycolytic pathway that reversibly oxidatively phosphorylates glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. It may have other additional functions in transcriptional activation. It is highly expressed due to its housekeeping functional role, and the prevalent expression of GAPDH has facilitated its use as an internal loading control – traditionally for mRNA expression comparisons – but also in protein studies. GAPDH antibody serves as an excellent standard, and this is reflected in its ubiquitous usage as such in scientific experiments and the literature. The GAPDH antibody and analysis of the tumoricidal protein-lipid complex HAMLET’s effect upon cancer cells demonstrated that HAMLET not only kills cancer cells but also activates an innate immune response in the surrounding tissues through ion channel activation (1).  Shin’s group used the GAPDH antibody in their studies of prostate cancer (PCa) and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) to profile the up-regulation of classic tumor metastatic and invasive genes through the integrin beta-1 signaling pathway (2).

Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: GAPDH Antibody Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: GAPDH Antibody

A group from the Scripps Research Institute determined that RNA interference (RNAi) of hepatitis C virus RNA replication in chronic liver disease may be a much-needed and effective alternative treatment and GAPDH antibody served as one of their standards (3). Field, et. al. studied the enzyme Mthfs and the tetrahydrofolate (THF) family of purine synthesis cofactors in mice (4). Use of the GAPDH antibody in mice knockouts enabled them to show that Mthfs is an essential gene and helped to shed light on unknown downstream pathways.

  1. PMID: 23505537
  2. PMID: 23532895
  3. PMID: 12566571
  4. PMID: 22303332

Novus Biologicals offers GAPDH reagents for your research needs including:

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