Adiponectin is an adipocytokine protein that positively regulates metabolism of lipids and glucose by suppressing glucose production from the liver, stimulating insulin sensitivity, and increasing the rate of fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake. Insulin resistance, obesity and dyslipidemia (abnormal blood lipid levels) are all linked to Adiponectin deficiency. The Adiponectin antibody is also used in Type 2 Diabetes research.
In recent years, a number of antibody studies have focused on the metabolic pathways governing Adiponectin. In 2003, Yamauchi, et al. identified two Adiponectin receptors, Adipo R1 and Adipo R2. Subsequent experiments showed Adipo R1 to be the primary receptor in skeletal muscle, which is the body's main glucose-utilizing tissue. However, the underlying mechanism of action remained unclear.
In 2010, M. Iwabu, et al. published a paper which significantly advanced Adiponectin antibody research, disclosing new facts about the Adipo R1 signalling pathway [PMID: 20357764]. Using mice depleted of skeletal muscle Adipo R1- (m-Adipo R1KO), the researchers were able to confirm Adipo R1 affected insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Markedly higher insulin and plasma glucose levels were recorded in m-Adipo R1KO mice than wild-type controls, while antibody assays also revealed marked alterations in insulin-induced phosphorylation of key signalling molecules, including Akt, IRS-1, JNK1 and p70 S6 kinase. The m-Adipo R1KO group also showed decreased mitochondrial biogenesis, with reduced levels of mitochondrial proteins, PGC1 alpha transcription factor and mitochondrial DNA.
The m-Adipo R1KO mice also demonstrated enhanced oxidative stress coupled with impaired oxidation of fatty acids, a common occurrence with insulin resistance. These effects were partially reversed by exercise, showing exercise may be a useful therapeutic tool in cases of impaired Adiponectin function.
Novus Biologicals offers many Adiponectin reagents for your research needs including: