Overview of Signal Transduction Antibodies

Mon, 04/12/2010 - 03:20

At Novus Biologicals, we have over 9,000 products on our transduction antibody database. Signal transducers are proteins that facilitate movement of signals, i.e. molecules that cause a reaction, from outside to inside the cell, where they cause changes to cellular function and activity in either the cytoplasm or the nucleus. Transduction pathways are usually activated by complex enzyme cascades, and new proteins are constantly being developed. Thus, our antibody catalogue is constantly being updated.

There are three classes of cell signalling proteins, differentiated according to the methods of transduction. The first group, steroid hormone transducers, diffuse across the cell membrane, binding to receptors within the cellular matrix. Upon binding to their ligands, these receptors are released from binding proteins, such as HSP90, via a conformational shift. A nuclear localisation sequence is unlocked, which facilitates transport of the hormone into the nucleus. Once there, the molecules bind to DNA transcription proteins and alter gene expression.

The second group, protein hormones and growth factors, are too large or not hydrophobic enough to diffuse through the membrane. In this case, transduction takes place by binding to cell-surface receptors. The entire ligand/receptor unit is then adsorbed into the cell by endocytosis. The ligand is released while the receptor is recycled or broken down.

The most common type of cell signalling is transduction via secondary messengers. Here, the ligand binds to the primary messenger (the receptor) causing a conformational change. This in turn alters the functions and/or properties of the target cell.

Disruption of all three types of transduction pathways is indicated in a number of tumours, so our transduction antibody database is essential for onconogenic research.

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