TNF alpha (tumor necrosis factor alpha, cachectin, macrophage cytotoxic factor (MCF))

Wed, 10/22/2014 - 15:01

TNF alpha is a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor superfamily. It is involved in the regulation of a wide spectrum of biological processes: cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. TNF alpha has been implicated in a variety of autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis, and psoriasis), insulin resistance, septic shock, and tumor metastases related to cancer. The major source of TNF alpha is activated macrophages but it is also secreted by T-cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and certain tumor cells. This cytokine received its designation because it causes tumor necrosis when injected into tumor-bearing mice.  TNF alpha exists as a multimer of two, three, or five noncovalently linked units and is closely related to tumor necrosis factor beta (TNF beta, or lymphotoxin), sharing the same receptors and cellular actions. TNF alpha binds to the TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR receptors.

Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: TNF alpha Antibody Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: TNF alpha Antibody


Binding of TNF alpha to its downstream receptors leads to apoptosis, differentiation, or proliferation depending on the specific receptor engaged (TNFRI has been identified as the major receptor). TNF alpha signals through major pathways such as NF-kB, JNK and MAPK. The targeted blockage of TNF alpha by powerful antibodies such as Remicade and Humira has been tremendously successful as therapeutic modalities for autoimmune diseases. Anti-aging researchers performed liver proteasome profiling studies with the TNF alpha antibody to better understand how the cell’s ability to handle stress and protein damage translates to a longer lifespan1. Roth et al relied upon the TNF alpha antibody for their work on eosinophil subpopulations in skin diseases2. With the help of the TNF alpha antibody, this group created different expression patterns across a wide range of diseases to better understand the role of distinct functional subtypes with respect to host defense, immunomodulation, fibrosis, and tumor development. Additionally, Bakers’ lab employed the TNF alpha antibody to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on glucose homeostasis in adipocytes, where PCBs naturally accumulate3. Furthermore, Piao et al used the TNF alpha antibody in their basal-like breast cancer research to uncover a novel NFkB-dependent pathway that can be inhibited by alpha-catenin4. Novus Biologicals offers TNF alpha reagents for your research needs including:


  1. 22567116
  2. 21884530
  3. 23099484
  4. 24509793

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