CD19: An Undoubted Biomarker for B Cells

Wed, 09/17/2014 - 15:16

CD19 is a cell surface protein member of the large immunoglobulin superfamily that complexes with CD21, CD81, and CD225 in the membrane of mature B-cells. A major function of CD19 is to assemble with the antigen receptor of B-lymphocytes to decrease the threshold for receptor-dependent stimulation, thus enhancing the specificity and sensitivity of B-cells towards antigens. CD19 plays a large role in regulating B-cell growth. Its expression is confined to only B-lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells of the hematopoietic system. Leukemia phenotype studies suggest that CD19 is the earliest and broadest B-cell restricted marker. Because increased CD19 expression stimulates autoantibody production, CD19 studies provide insight into the autoimmunity process.

Immunohistochemistry: CD19 Antibody Immunohistochemistry: CD19 Antibody

Defects in CD19 cause hypogammaglobulinemia. As reviewed by Gold et al, a key step in B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling involves using CD19, Cbl, Gab1 and Gab2 as docking proteins to recruit PI3K to the plasma membrane through Src homology (SH) domains1. Because most B-cell malignancies express CD19, much research is focused on new therapies for these malignancies that do not respond to standard therapies. The latest studies are focused on the development of chimeric antigen receptor (CARs) – fusion proteins that are hybrids of antigen recognition moieties and T-cell activation domains, as reviewed in Kochenderfer’s paper from the NIH2. Experiments with the CD19 antibody from Ogembo’s lab examined the regulation of RBC-pathogen clearance and filtration of altered self3. They embarked on a marker characterization of the littoral cell (LC) found within the venous sinus-lining of the red pulp within the spleen. Their profiling compared humans and closely related primates and they were able to identify SIRP alpha (CD172a) and FHOD1 as unique markers to humans.

Novus Biologicals offers CD19 reagents for your research needs including:


  1. 11043767
  2. 23546520
  3. 22490440

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