Antibody News

Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), The Most Popular Astrocyte Marker

Wednesday, March 16, 2016 - 13:43

GFAP, a class-III intermediate filament, is a 50kDa protein which is found in the mature and developing astrocytes in the CNS, non-myelinating Schwann cells in the PNS, enteric glial cells (enteric nervous system/ENS), ependymal cells, and radial glia of the developing brain. GFAP antibodies are the most popular marker for astrocytes in neurological studies and along with its breakdown products (BDPs), GFAP has been proposed as a useful candidates for biofluid-based markers for numerous neurological conditions especially during traumatic brain/spinal cord injury and stroke [1]. Moreover, neuro-oncology studies have established a positive reaction to GFAP in astrocytomas, ependymoma, and astrocytic cells of mixed gliomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, astroblastoma, and gliosarcoma [2].


Caspase 3 - a Reliable Marker for Index of Apoptosis Induction

Friday, March 11, 2016 - 15:16

Caspase-3 is one of the most important players in apoptosis signaling. It is synthesized as an inactive 32 kDa pro-enzyme and upon direct activation by Caspase-8, -9 or -10, it gets processed into its active forms, the p17-20 and p10-12 subunits. The latter are responsible for the cleavage of PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase), actin and SREBP, which are associated with apoptosis [1]. Because of its role in coordinating the destruction of cellular structures, Caspase 3 is often regarded as an executioner or effector caspase and considered as a marker in various immunoassays for apoptosis related experiments.

Caspase 3 antibody


Tips on choosing an ideal loading control antibody for Western Blotting

Monday, March 7, 2016 - 12:56

Western blotting is one of the most commonly used antibody assay techniques in cell and molecular biology research since its development over three decades ago, and is considered the gold standard for protein detection and quantification.

When performing a Western Blot, it is crucial to ensure equal loading of protein samples and protein transfer through the use of a loading control antibody. beta-Actin, GAPDH and alpha Tubulin are well known housekeeping proteins that are commonly used as loading controls. While there are various options available, researchers often face some challenges in choosing a proper loading control antibody as expression of housekeeping proteins can be influenced by sample type, treatment or other...

FSH R - a hormone receptor critical for both female and male reproductive systems

Monday, February 29, 2016 - 15:33

FSH R, or follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, is a transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor that is expressed in the ovaries, uterus, and testes. The ligand for this receptor, considered to be the central hormone of mammalian reproduction, is called follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) [1]. In females, FSH R is essential for proper ovarian development and follicle maturation. In males, it is required for normal spermatogenesis. Linkage analysis revealed that in females, a mutation in the extracellular ligand binding domain of FSH R segregated with a disease called hypergonadotrophic ovarian dysgenesis [2]. In males, with a mutation in the intracytoplasmatic loop that leads to ligand-independent constitutive FSH R activation, spermatogenesis is sustained in the absence of gonadotropins [3]. Based on these examples, it is...

Include tissue controls in every IHC experiment to instill confidence in your results

Wednesday, February 17, 2016 - 12:15

Interpretation of immunohistochemistry (IHC) data is difficult in the absence of appropriate controls.

To confirm staining specificity and instill confidence in your results, a positive and negative tissue control should be routinely included in IHC experiments.

Positive Tissue Control Negative Tissue Control

Control slides


Need help identifying a positive and negative control for your IHC...

Tyrosine hydroxylase - a marker for dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system

Monday, February 15, 2016 - 15:48

Tyrosine hydroxylase is a member of the aromatic amino acid hydroxylase (AAAH) family.  It is expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), which can be, through a series of downstream enzymatic reactions, processed into the neurotransmitter and signaling molecule dopamine. Dopamine can then be further altered to produce norepinephrine or epinephrine. Tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate limiting enzyme in this pathway, also referred to as the catecholamine synthesis pathway. 

Antibodies that detect tyrosine hydroxylase are often used to identify dopaminergic neurons in the CNS.  In the mammalian retina, for instance, a subset of dopaminergic amacrine cells that form a single synaptic strata in the inner retina specifically express tyrosine hydroxylase and are often identified through tyrosine hydroxylase antibody staining (Wulle and...

Alpha-actin/ACTA1 - A skeletal muscle isoform mutated in various myopathies

Monday, February 15, 2016 - 15:40

Actin is an abundant cytoskeletal protein involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell motility, cell division, and muscle contraction. Actin monomers assemble into filaments and can provide a track for transport of cargo by the molecular motor myosin (1). Alternatively, interaction with myosin allows contraction between actin filaments. This contractility is essential during cell migration and cytokinesis (1). On a larger scale, organized scaffolds of actin filaments interact with myosin to provide mechanical force during muscle contraction (1).

Actin antibodies are widely used as loading controls when measuring protein levels by performing western blots (3). While actin often serves as a normalization control in westerns or qPCR, actin antibodies also serve as important research tools for assessing the cytoskeletal network of cells or muscle fibers. For these purposes...

Tubulin alpha 4A - A ubiquitous tubulin isoform linked to ALS and infertility

Monday, February 15, 2016 - 15:23

Microtubules are a main component of the cytoskeleton and play essential roles in a variety of cellular processes. These highly dynamic tubular structures are assembled from alpha- and beta-tubulin dimers to form a complex structural network of microtubules throughout the cytoplasm. This network provides a substrate for intracellular trafficking of vesicles, organelles, and other cargo and can also facilitate cell migration. Additionally, during cell division, microtubules make up the mitotic spindle and provide the mechanical force for chromosome segregation. The diversity of microtubule functions is made possible by the large number of binding partners as well as regulation through post-translational modification. Microtubule associated proteins (MAPs), such as kinesin or dynein, can bind to tubulin and transport cargo while others alter microtubule stability. The tubulin family of proteins consists of many isoforms, each with specialized roles within the cell....

ATG11 - An important scaffolding protein in autophagosome formation and fusion

Friday, February 12, 2016 - 14:44

Autophagy is a cellular mechanism used to regulate cell metabolism and to recycle or degrade damaged organelles and proteins. This is accomplished through the engulfment of cargo in a double-membrane structure called the autophagosome. The autophagosome fuses with the vacuole or the lysosome where hydrolytic enzymes facilitate the degradation of biomolecules. Each step of autophagy is a tightly regulated process from the recognition of cargo to the assembly of the autophagosome. ATG11 is an important scaffolding protein that seems to be involved in selective autophagy. Specifically, ATG11 facilitates the fusion of autophagosomal vesicles and the vacuole by linking selective autophagy receptors with a multiprotein complex consisting of ATG1-ATG13 (1). The ATG1-ATG13 complex is inactivated under normal conditions. Starvation triggers the binding of ATG17-ATG31-ATG29 to assemble a large pentameric complex capable of facilitating autophagosome...

Three tips to successfully conjugate your own antibody

Wednesday, February 10, 2016 - 10:24

Conjugated antibodies are essential research tools for countless cell and molecular assays. While much of the time a researcher’s needs can be met with the wide variety of commercially available antibody conjugates, some applications may call for a unique reagent. For this reason some scientists opt for the flexibility of conjugating their own antibodies. While this approach may seem daunting, the availability of antibody labeling kits like the Novus Lightning-Link Kit have simplified the conjugation process and reduced the time needed to generate your own high quality antibody reagents. The Lightning-Link reagent kit allows you to efficiently label your antibody in just 30 seconds. Whether you are simply trying to save your lab a bit of money or synthesizing a unique reagent with no commercial alternatives, take into account the...

Beta-Actin's Role in Neuronal Plasticity

Thursday, February 4, 2016 - 14:29

Beta-Actin is a highly conserved protein involved in cell growth, cytoskeletal and extracellular support structures and cell migration. Because beta-Actin is ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells, it is frequently used as a loading control for assays involving protein detection, such as Western blots.

Interestingly, Beta-Actin has been shown to be associated with growth cones in developing neurite cells. While beta-Actin is one of several actins involved in the guidance of growth cones towards synaptic targets, beta-Actin mRNA has also been shown to regulate protein synthesis by binding to Vg1RBP, ultimately resulting in asymmetrical translation of beta-Actin near the site of growth cone turning.1 Beta-actin has also been shown to localize in areas associated with neuronal growth and remodeling in both developing and mature neuronal cell types. Beta-actin is primarily found in the growth cones, filopodia, cell bodies and...

Diabetes Infographic

Wednesday, January 27, 2016 - 12:54

Diabetes is a disease that impacts over 29 million people in the US (1). It is metabolic disorder that is the result of a high level or sugar or glucose in the blood. The three types of diabetes are Type 1, Type 2 and gestational diabetes, with Type 2 being the most common worldwide (2). The factors that contribute to a person getting Type 1 or Type 2 are largely unknown, but genetics, obesity and exercise have been linked to diabetes (3). Learn more about diabetes in our infographic below.

Diabetes infographic

Novus Biologicals offers 3,700+ reagents for the research of diabetes.


  1. CDC/ 
  2. Medical News Today
  3. ...

ChREBP, a glucose sensitive transcription factor with role in glucose-lipids homeostasis and cancer

Monday, January 25, 2016 - 14:27

ChREBP (carbohydrate response element-binding protein) is a glucose responsive basic helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper (bHLH/LZ) transcription factor that binds MLX and then carbohydrate response element /ChoRE for the induction of genes involved in glycolysis, de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and fatty acid desaturation. ChREBP’s target genes includes glucokinase (GCK), fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), pyruvate kinase/liver type pyruvate kinase (PK1/ PKLR), delta-9-desaturase (SCD/SCD1) etc. ChREBP is expressed in a number of mammalian tissues such as liver, skeletal muscle, white/brown adipose, heart, kidney, cerebellum and intestine. Increased hepatic ChREBP expression has been suggested to result in development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity through the conversion of carbohydrates into triglycerides. Recent findings have suggested that besides glucose-lipids homeostasis, it implicates in pathways linked to...

SLC31A1/CTR1 - a copper transporter with important implications for platinum-based chemotherapy

Friday, January 15, 2016 - 13:04

Copper is an essential micronutrient that serves as a cofactor in numerous biological processes, but can be toxic when present in excess. Because of this, cells must tightly maintain copper levels. This includes balance between import and export of cellular copper. The major copper importer in humans is the high-affinity copper transporter SLC31A1 or CTR1. The localization of CTR1 varies between cell types, but is commonly found at the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles [1-3].   

In addition to copper, CTR1 has the ability to transport platinum-containing drugs. One example is a chemotherapeutic drug called cisplatin that is used to treat a variety of cancers. Unfortunately, many types of cancer are resistant to platinum drugs, presenting a major obstacle for achieving maximum drug efficacy. In yeast, western blotting using a CTR1...

Dinosaur Protein Names: Infographic

Wednesday, January 13, 2016 - 11:49

Trex1 the protein is involved in DNA damage response. Tyrannosaurus rex (T. rex) the dinosaur lived during the Cretaceous Period. Raptor the protein is a regulator of mTOR activity. Velociraptors the dinosaurs lived during the Cretaceous Period. Learn more about Trex1 and Raptor proteins as well as some fun facts about the tyrannosaurus rex and the velociraptor in our infographic below.

Dinosaur protein Infogrphic

Novus Biologicals offers reagents for these proteins for your research needs:

EEA1 - an early endosome protein important for membrane trafficking

Friday, January 8, 2016 - 14:33

EEA1, or early endosome antigen 1, is a membrane bound Rab5 effector protein specific to the early endosome and plays an important role in membrane trafficking. Early endosomes fuse with endocytic vesicles to redistribute compounds to other cellular destinations. EEA1 contains a C-terminal FYVE domain that binds to phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, which targets it to early endosomes [1, 2]. EEA1 is essential for early endosome docking together with SNARES contained on endocytic vesicles, allowing for membrane fusion [3].                                                           ...

Webinar: Multi-color fluorescence immunohistochemistry using primary antibodies raised in the same host species

Monday, January 4, 2016 - 14:58

Fluorescent probes conjugated to antibodies allow for simultaneous IHC detection of multiple antigens in the same tissue section. However, quite often conventional multi-color IHC cannot be done if only primary antibodies raised in the same host species are available to the researcher. To solve this problem, we developed a novel technique for performing multicolor fluorescence immunohistochemistry using primary antibodies derived from a single host source. Alex Kalyuzhny, PhD, Immunohistochemistry and ELISpot Manager at Bio-Techne, will discuss modifications of primary antibodies allowing using fluorescent secondary antibodies so they bind only to primary antibodies of interest but don’t cross-react with irrelevant primary antibodies.

Register now for our FREE webinar on Thursday, January 14, 2016. 

  • Date: Thursday, January 14, 2016
  • Time: 3-4 GMT
  • Presented by: Alex...


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