Hu, Mu, Rt, Ca, Eq, Pm, PmApplications:
WB, Simple Western, DB, ELISA, Flow, Flow-IC, Func, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P, In vitro, IP, B/N, CyTOF-ready, KDHost:
Hu, Mu, RtApplications:
WB, ELISA, ICC/IFHost:
WB, Flow, IHC, IHC-P, IPHost:
Applications: WB, ELISA, PA, AP
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionarily conserved pattern-recognition molecules resembling the toll proteins that mediate antimicrobial responses in Drosophila. These proteins recognize different microbial products during infection and serve as an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. TLR9 forms a subfamily along with TLR7 and TLR8 that recognize viral RNA and CpG DNA sequences and are localized in intracellular acidic compartments such as the phagolysosome. Unlike other TLRs which act through adaptor molecules such as TOLLIP, TIRAP, TRIF, and MyD88 to activate various kinases and transcription factors to respond to potential infection, TLR9 is strictly dependent on MyD88.
Bioinformatics Tool for TLR9
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Related TLR9 Blog Posts
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|Toll-like receptors in the intestinal epithelial cells
By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are microbe-sensing proteins that act as first responders to danger signals. TLRs help the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) recognize commensal bacteria... Read more.
|Topics in CD11b: The innate immune response
Integrins are transmembrane receptors composed of alpha and beta chains, where beta-integrins are mainly expressed in leukocytes. Leukocytes are white blood cells that act in the immune system to defend our body against foreign pathogens. Integrin... Read more.
|MHC Class I and the Herpes Simplex Virus
MHC molecules (also known as major histocompatibility complex molecules) assist in the presentation of antigens to T cells in order to eradicate foreign pathogens. These molecules are highly polymorphic, meaning that they exist in multiple varian... Read more.
|The role of TLR4 in breast cancer
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are highly conserved proteins that are first known for their role in pathogen recognition and immune response activation. In order to elicit the necessary immune response in reaction to a foreign pathogen, TLRs trigger cy... Read more.
|IRAK4: The "master IRAK" critical for initiating immune responses
IRAK4, also known as Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4, is a serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays a critical role in initiating innate and adaptive immune responses against foreign pathogens. It activates NF-kappaB in both Toll-like rec... Read more.
|TLR9: For Whom the Cell Tolls
The Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) protein, also known as CD289, belongs to the family of Toll-like receptor (TLR) proteins which play a large role in pathogen recognition and the activation of innate immunity. Scientists using TLR9 antibodies have found... Read more.
|TLR9: Tollgate to Immunity
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in the activation of innate immunity, and TLRs are expressed in a large number of immune cells as well as in epithelial cells. TLR9 recognizes synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethyla... Read more.
|TLR9, Infectious Disease and Cancer
Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a protein encoded by TLR9 gene in humans. It is also known as cluster of differentiation 289 (CD289) and is a member of TLR family. Proteins from TLR family are transmembrane proteins that expressed in both antigen-resen... Read more.
|TLR9 Antibodies in Immunity Research
Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a member of the toll-like receptor family that plays a key role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. Scientists using TLR9 antibodies have found the protein is highly conserved from Drosophila to hu... Read more.