The Bcl-2 family of apoptosis-related genes plays central roles in regulating apoptotic pathways (reviewed in Thomadaki and Scorilas, 2006). Regulation of cell death through apoptosis is critical for the maintenance of homeostasis, defense against infectious agents, and normal development. Bcl-2 family proteins regulate apoptosis primarily through the regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability. In mammals, the family consists of both prosurvival (antiapoptotic) and proapoptotic (prodeath) members. Cellular homeostasis is thought to be dependent on a balance between the actions of prosurvival and proapoptotic proteins. Bcl-2 family proteins can be divided into 3 main subfamilies on the basis of their function and the content of their Bcl-2 homology (BH) domains, for example: 1) Prosurvival: Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-W, A1, and Mcl-1 2) Proapoptotic (multidomain): Bax, Bak, and Bok. 3) BH3-only (proapoptotic): Bad, Bcl-XS, Bid, Bik, Bim, Blk, Bmf, Bnip, Noxa, and Puma. Prosurvival members inhibit cells from undergoing apoptosis, whereas proapoptotic and BH3-only subfamily members promote apoptosis. There are 4 BH domains (1-4) conserved among Bcl-2 family proteins. The BH domains are important for function as well as for heterodimerization between family members. Typical prosurvival family members have all four BH domains (1-4), whereas proapoptotic (multidomain) members have BH1, 2 and 3 domains and BH3-only members have only the BH3 domain. Overall, the relative ratio of prosurvival and proapoptotic proteins determines the suseptibility of a cell to various apoptotic stimuli. Many Bcl-2 family proteins are differentially expressed in various malignancies and some are useful prognostic biomarkers. Prosurvival proteins are often elevated in diverse cancers and have the potential to confer resistance to both endogenous cell death stimuli and cancer treatments. Alterations in the ratio or levels of Bcl-2 family proteins have been also associated with nonmalignant diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune diseases, AIDs, Down's syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, glomerulonephritis, and muscular dystrophy. IMG-5682 recognizes Bax. It reacts with an epitope (PELALDPVPQDASTKKLSE)which is 100% conserved in human Bax isoforms alpha (192 amino acids), beta (218 amino acids), epsilon (164 amino acids), sigma (179 amino acids), and psi (173 amino acids).
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Different types of cell death have classically been identified by discrete morphological changes. The hallmarks of apoptosis include cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation and membrane blebbing whereas necroptosis is characterized by cell swelling... Read more.
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Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is controlled by a caspase signal cascade that activates downstream signals to induce the morphological changes used to differentiate apoptosis from other forms of cell death. Novus Biologicals offers a variet... Read more.
|The use of apoptosis antibodies and controls in cell death research
Apoptosis is a method of programmed cell death that is notably characterized by a morphological change in cellular nuclei and membrane appearance. Not to be confused with necrosis, apoptosis is a pathway that is induced by a variety of factors tha... Read more.
|The role of Parkin and autophagy in retinal pigment epithelial cell (RPE) degradation
The root of Parkinson’s disease (PD) points to a poorly regulated electron transport chain leading to mitochondrial damage, where many proteins need to work cohesively to ensure proper function. The two key players of this pathway are PINK1,... Read more.
|The role of p53 in UV radiation DNA damage and subsequent tumorogenesis
p53, the protein product of the tp53 gene, is one of the most widely studied tumor suppressor proteins in cancer research. p53 is unique in that it demonstrates both tumor suppressive and tumor progressive properties depending on whether it is fu... Read more.
|The dynamic use of a PCNA antibody in fish, porcine and primate species
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|Required proteins for p62/SQSTM1 regulation and a role for p62/SQSTM1 in neuronal autophagy
Autophagy is a crucial cellular process that clears the cell of protein aggregates, toxins, and damaged cell products. Accumulation of toxins, damaged cell products and unwanted proteins has been proven to play a role in aging and many forms of dis... Read more.
|Altered expression of BCL2 in cancer
Similar to other cell processes, the balance between cell survival and cell death is an important equilibrium that when altered expression of genes can lead to a variety of disease. For example, too little cell death can promote cell overgrowth a... Read more.
|p53 - Investigating an important tumor suppressor
p53 is a tumor suppressor that has a central role in regulating cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis. p53 is widely studied for its role in cancer and is mutated or altered in more than half of all cancers (1). This widespread role in tumor... Read more.
|UVRAG - A regulator of membrane trafficking in autophagy and endocytosis
UV resistance-associated gene (UVRAG) is a tumor suppressor that is commonly mutated in colon and breast cancer. While UVRAG was discovered for its ability to complement UV sensitivity in xeroderma pigmentosum cells, its main functions are in auto... Read more.
|Caspase 9: The Suicidal Cell Whisperer
Cell death via apoptosis is a key cellular function triggered by the cell death receptor family and their ligands which signal through downstream adaptor molecules and the caspase protease family. Among the subclass of initiator caspases that include... Read more.
|Dynamin-related Protein 1 (DRP1) in Mitochondria and Apoptosis.
Dynamin-related Protein 1 (DRP1) is known to function in mitochondrial and peroxisomal division and mediate membrane fission through oligomerization into ring-like structure and sever the mitochondrial membrane, through a GTP hydrolysis-dependent mech... Read more.
|Ku70's Roles in Double Strand and Mismatch DNA Repair
Ku70 is a 70 kDa protein that was shown to be involved in multiple cellular pathways, mainly involving DNA repair and recombination. Among these are the non-homologus end repairs of DNA double strand breaks. Ku70 was first identified as an autoantigen... Read more.
|Bax Research Gives New Insight into Oxidative Apoptosis
Bax is a member of the Bcl-2 family; an extensive range of proteins which play key roles in apoptosis, or programmed cell death, by regulating outer mitochondrial membrane permeability. We at Novus Biologicals are one of the leading antibody suppliers... Read more.