Using SCP3/SYCP3 Antibodies as Meiosis Markers in Gametogenesis and DNA Repair Studies

Mon, 06/13/2016 - 11:08

The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a protein structure that forms during the synapsis of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. This structure is involved in the processes of chromosome synapsis, genetic recombination and subsequent chromosome segregation, and is essential for gametogenesis.

The SC is comprised of three component proteins SYCP1, SYCP2, and SYCP3. SYCP1 functions in SC assembly, meiotic recombination, and XY body formation (de Vries et al., 2005). SYCP2 is required for synaptonemal complex assembly and chromosomal synapsis (Yang et al., 2006). Synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3/SYCP3) is an essential structural component of the SC lateral complex (Alsheimer et al., 2010). Mutations in the SYCP3 gene have been linked to azoospermia in males and recurrent pregnancy loss in females (Sazegari et al., 2014), suggesting it plays a critical role in proper gametogenesis.

Researchers have found that SCP3/SCYP3 antibodies “should be generally useful for a meiosis-specific marker” (Iwai 2006) for a wide range of studies on germ cells. For example, researchers are using Novus’ SCP3/SYCP3 antibody (NB300-232) to report the presence of ectopic germ cells in human embryonic adrenals and highlight species-specific differences in early gametogenesis between humans and mice (Heeren et al, 2016). In an earlier study, researchers used Novus’ SCP3/SYCP3 antibody (NB300-231) to explore the role of the endocannabinoid system in mouse germ cells (Grimaldi et al., 2009). Finally, Novus’ SCP3/SYCP3 antibody (NB300-230) was used to show how VEGF supports germ cell survival and sperm production (Caires et al., 2009).

SCP3 antibody

SCP3 antibody

Immunofluorescence analysis of SCP3 antibody (NB300-231) in mouse pachytene preparation.

Immunohistochemistry analysis of SCP3 antibody (NB300-232) in mouse testes tissue.

SCP3/SCYP3 antibodies are also useful as meiotic markers in DNA damage repair research. In one study, the SCP3/SCYP3 antibody NB300-232 was used to study the differences in DNA damage response at the XY body and at DNA damage sites in somatic cells (Lu et al., 2013). The SCP3/SYCP3 antibody (NB300-230) was also used to explore the role of Senataxin in DNA damage response during meiotic recombination and gene silencing (Becherel et al., 2013).

Novus Biologicals offers a wide selection of antibodies to the three synaptonemal complex proteins SYCP1, SYCP2, and SYCP3. Together these antibodies are effectively being used as meiosis markers for research on gametogenesis and DNA damage repair.

de Vries FA, de Boer E, van den Bosch M, Baarends WM, Ooms M, Yuan L, Liu JG, van Zeeland AA, Heyting C, Pastink A. Mouse Sycp1 functions in synaptonemal complex assembly, meiotic recombination, and XY body formation. Genes Dev. 2005 Jun 1;19(11):1376-89. [PMID: 26834021]

Yang F, De La Fuente R, Leu NA, Baumann C, McLaughlin KJ, Wang PJ. Mouse SYCP2 is required for synaptonemal complex assembly and chromosomal synapsis during male meiosis. J Cell Biol. 2006 May 22;173(4):497-507. [PMID: 16717126]

Alsheimer M, Baier A, Schramm S, Schütz W, Benavente R. Synaptonemal complex protein SYCP3 exists in two isoforms showing different conservation in mammalian evolution. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2010;128(1-3):162-8. [PMID: 20339291]

Sazegari A, Kalantar SM, Pashaiefar H, Mohtaram S, Honarvar N, Feizollahi Z, Ghasemi N. The T657C polymorphism on the SYCP3 gene is associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2014 Oct;31(10):1377-81. [PMID: 25059562]

Iwai T, Yoshii A, Yokota T, Sakai C, Hori H, Kanamori A, Yamashita M. Structural components of the synaptonemal complex, SYCP1 and SYCP3, in the medaka fish Oryzias latipes. Exp Cell Res. 2006 Aug 1;312(13):2528-37. [PMID: 16764855]

Heeren AM, He N, de Souza AF, Goercharn-Ramlal A, van Iperen L, Roost MS, Gomes Fernandes MM, van der Westerlaken LA, Chuva de Sousa Lopes SM4. On the development of extragonadal and gonadal human germ cells. Biol Open. 2016 Feb 1;5(2):185-94. [PMID:    26834021]

Grimaldi P, Orlando P, Di Siena S, Lolicato F, Petrosino S, Bisogno T, Geremia R, De Petrocellis L, Di Marzo V. The endocannabinoid system and pivotal role of the CB2 receptor in mouse spermatogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jul 7;106(27):11131-6.

Caires KC, de Avila J, McLean DJ. Vascular endothelial growth factor regulates germ cell survival during establishment of spermatogenesis in the bovine testis. Reproduction. 2009 Oct;138(4):667-77. [PMID: 19633133]

Lu LY, Xiong Y, Kuang H, Korakavi G, Yu X. Regulation of the DNA damage response on male meiotic sex chromosomes. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2105. [PMID: 23812044]

Becherel OJ, Yeo AJ, Stellati A, Heng EY, Luff J, Suraweera AM, Woods R, Fleming J, Carrie D, McKinney K, Xu X, Deng C, Lavin MF. Senataxin plays an essential role with DNA damage response proteins in meiotic recombination and gene silencing. PLoS Genet. 2013 Apr;9(4):e1003435. [PMID: 23593030]

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