Interleukin 33 (IL-33) - A dual function cytokine

Mon, 02/09/2015 - 14:43

IL-33 is a member of the interleukin family of cytokines that regulates a wide variety of cellular functions. Its receptor is ST2, an IL-1 receptor family member that also acts as a negative regulator of TLR-IL-1R signaling and the IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP). Receptor binding of IL-33 activates NF-kB and MAP kinases, stimulating downstream expression of TH2-associated cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6. Prolonged IL-33 treatment in mice leads to the development of eosinophilia, splenomegaly, and severe pathological changes in mucosal organs. IL-33 has been shown to co-localize with heterochromatin and possesses transcriptional repressor activities, suggesting that it may function as both a proinflammatory cytokine as well as an intracellular nuclear factor with transcriptional regulatory properties.

IL33 antibody ICC/IF

Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: IL-33 Antibody

Kondo et al studied disease progression with the IL-33 antibody in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) clonal blasts and found that interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) induce the expression of an immunoinhibitory molecule through NF-kB (1). Additional studies with the IL-33 antibody in human dendritic cells demonstrated that NF-kB signaling in intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) is blocked by the E. coli effector protein NleE (2). Additional immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence experiments using the IL-33 antibody were done by Brown’s group at East Carolina University, where they identified a novel toxicity mechanism triggered by carbon nanotubes in IL-33-responsive mast cells, raising strong concerns about the safe use of engineered nanomaterials in applications such as drug delivery carriers and biomedical devices (3). The same group also published follow-up studies on systemic toxicity with the IL-33 antibody that enabled them to identify inflammatory responses to graphene nanosheets (GNS) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) (4). Their interesting results indicate that Th2 immune responses mediated by IL-33-dependent pathways can cause serious, undesirable allergic reactions that have quite a hazardous impact on their recipients.
Novus Biologicals offers IL-33 reagents for your research needs including:


  1. 20472834
  2. 20833837
  3. 22777948
  4. 23662055

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