CD4, HIV and T Cell Signaling

Wed, 02/26/2014 - 13:19

CD4, also known as Cluster of Differentiation 4, interacts with major histocompatibility complex class II antigens, acts as a receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus and induces the aggregation of lipid rafts. It is expressed in T lymphocytes, B cells, macrophages, granulocytes, dendritic cells and specific regions of the brain. This protein initiates the early phase of T-cell activation and may function as an important mediator of indirect neuronal damage in infectious and immune-mediated diseases of the central nervous system.

CD4 has been associated with CD4 deficiency, penicilliosis, dermatophytosis, anogenital venereal wart, anus cancer and over 100 other diseases and disorders.  Among its related super-pathways are T cell receptor signaling pathway and co-stimulation by the CD28 family.

A recent research study analyzed the co-expression of the gp160 and its cellular receptor, CD4, in HeLa cells to determine whether the two molecules can interact prior to transport to the cell surface.  It showed that CD4 is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein precursor. (1)

CD4 is crucial for antigen-driven helper T cell signaling and is used as a receptor by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The HIV early protein, Nef, causes a loss of CD4 from cell surfaces through a previously undefined posttranscriptional mechanism. A research study demonstrated that Nef acts by inducing CD4 endocytosis, resulting in its degradation in lysosomes. CD4 down-regulation is strongly enhanced by the association of Nef with cell membranes through myristoylation. (2)

Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: CD4 Antibody Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: CD4 Antibody

Using various murine monoclonal CD4 antibodies researchers demonstrated that the glycoprotein CD is a critical component of the receptor for human herpes virus 7 (HHV-7), a recently discovered T-lymphotropic human herpes virus. The antagonistic effect between HHV-7 and HIV could be exploited to devise therapeutic approaches to AIDS. (3)

Novus Biologicals offers CD4 reagents for your research needs including:

  1. PMID: 2214026
  2.  PMID: 8124721
  3. PMID: 7909607

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