ADFP and Lipid Storage Disease

Thu, 09/06/2012 - 09:03

Adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADFP) is found on the surface of lipid droplets in most mammalian cell types. In mammals, lipid droplets are most abundant in adipose tissue, where stored triacylglycerol (TAG) provides the primary energy reserve for the organism. Lipid droplets in steroidogenic cells contain cholesteryl esters used in the synthesis of steroid hormones. Most other mammalian cells contain smaller lipid droplets, whose function remains unclear.

Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: ADFP Antibody

These lipids droplets may serve as local energy reserves or sources of lipid for membrane synthesis. Furthermore, they may protect cells from the harmful effects of excess lipid accumulation by sequestering toxic lipid species away from pathways that leading to cell death. Several studies have linked ADFP to neutral lipid accumulation. ADFP is generally upregulated in parallel with stored lipid during lipid droplet formation and is present on the surface of lipid droplets from the earliest time of their synthesis (1). Moreover, exogenous expression of ADRP leads to an increase in neutral lipid mass and lipid droplet over accumulation as detected by anti-ADFP antibodies by IHC, and immunoblotting (2). ADFP overexpression in cultured hepatocytes slows TAG turnover and simultaneously decreases TAG secretion in VLDL demonstrated using antibodies against ADFP (3). Together, these findings suggest a role for ADRP in lipid droplet homeostasis leading to the accumulation of adipose tissue associated with the development of serious medical conditions, which include type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and hyperlipidemia. Understanding adipogenesis is essential for the development of rational treatments for these disorders.

  1. PMID: 19638644
  2. PMID: 12217895
  3. PMID: 16627799

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