Hu, Mu, RtApplications:
WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-PHost:
Semaphorins, neuropilins and netrins are among a number of molecules and their receptors that regulate the developing nervous system to guide the development of neural circuits.1 Although first identified as axon guidance cues,2,3 it is now apparent that many of these same factors are not limited to the guidance of growing axons, but have roles in a range of processes from the guidance of cell migration to the regulation of the immune response, angiogenesis, lung branching morphogenesis, nervous system regeneration, and cancer.4-9 The semaphorins make up the largest family of axon guidance cues. They are characterized by the presence of an approximately 500 amino acid N-terminal semaphorin (Sema) domain. Semaphorins function mainly as chemorepellents that direct axons away from tissues.3 Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) has been shown to be repellent to cortical axons and to inhibit axon branching.10 The transmembrane protein semaphorin 6A has been shown to repel embryonic sympathetic axons.11 The actions of the various semaphorins are not always similar. Semaphorin 3A has been found to inhibit tumor development whereas semaphorin 6A may contribute to tumor progression.9 Neuropilins are the ligand binding moieties in the class 3 Semaphorin receptor complexes that subsequently activate signaling through associated plexins. Two types have been identified so far: Neuropilin-1 (Npn-1) and Neuropilin-2 (Npn-2) receptors. At the amino acid sequence level, Npn-1 and Npn-2 share 44% identity. Npn-1 and Npn-2 show different expression patterns in developing neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and show different binding specificities for different members of he semaphorin family. Both also function as receptors for some forms of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).12 Netrins are a family of laminin-related small proteins that are involved in axon guidance and eurite outgrowth. Netrin-1 has been shown to attract cortical growth cones and promote axon branching.10 Netrin-4 (first named b-netrin) was found to promote neurite elongation from olfactory bulb explants.
Research Areas for Netrin-1
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PTMs for Netrin-1
Learn more about PTMs related to Netrin-1.Phosphorylation
Bioinformatics Tool for Netrin-1
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